DIMENSION – Determining materials for energy conversion – Establishing a fast track towards processing and evaluation

DIMENSION is a 3-year research project funded by the Mercator Research Center Ruhr (MERCUR) on new functional materials for energy conversion. With the ongoing transformation of the energy system to green electricity, electrochemical processes are gaining central importance. The materials that have been used to date, for example for electrolysers and fuel cells, are expensive and exhausted. Scientists at University of Duisburg-Essen, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, and other institutions have therefore set themselves the goal of developing new and high-performance electrochemical materials.

People

Applicant Scientists

Board Member

Prof. Dr. Ralf Drautz
ICAMS Interdisciplinary Centre for Advanced Materials Simulation
Ruhr‐Universität Bochum
Email: ralf.drautz@rub.de

Board Member

Prof. Dr.‐Ing. Alfred Ludwig
Institute for Materials
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Ruhr‐Universität Bochum
Email: alfred.ludwig@rub.de

Board Member

Prof. Dr. Christof Schulz
Institute for Combustion and Gas Dynamics – Reactive Fluids
Faculty of Engineering
University of Duisburg‐Essen
Email: christof.schulz@uni‐due.de

Board Member

Prof. Dr.‐Ing. Doris Segets
Institute for Combustion and Gas Dynamics – Particle Science and Technology
Faculty of Engineering
University of Duisburg‐Essen
Email: doris.segets@uni‐due.de

Prof. Dr.‐Ing. Corina Andronescu
Technical Chemistry III
Faculty of Chemistry
University of Duisburg‐Essen
Email: corina.andronescu@uni‐due.de

Prof. Dr. Ulf‐Peter Apfel
Inorganic Chemistry I
Faculty of Chemistry and Biochemistry
Ruhr‐Universität Bochum
Email: ulf.apfel@rub.de

Prof. Dr.‐Ing. Harry Hoster
Lehrstuhl für Energietechnik
Faculty of Engineering
University of Duisburg‐Essen
Email: harry.hoster@uni‐due.de

Early Career Researchers

Valerie Strotkötter, MSc
Institute for Materials – Materials Discovery and Interfaces
Faculty of Engineering
Ruhr University Bochum

  • Sputter deposition of thin film material libraries
  • High-entropy materials with focus on high-entropy oxides
  • High-throughput characterization of chemical and structural properties

Matteo Rinaldi, MSc
Interdisciplinary Centre for Advanced Materials Simulation (ICAMS)
Ruhr University Bochum

  • Density functional theory for magnetic systems
  • Machine learning force fields and atomic cluster expansion (ACE)
  • Automation of high-throughput atomistic calculations
  • Machine learning and data-driven techniques

Dr. Steven Angel
Institute for Combustion and Gas Dynamics – Reactive Fluids
Faculty of Engineering
University of Duisburg-Essen

  • Spray-flame synthesis (SFS) of functional nanomaterials
  • Implementation of high-throughput SFS and characterization of metal oxides
  • Accelerated discovery of materials for heterogeneous catalytic applications
  • Materials for energy storage and hydrogen generation

Dr. Mohaned Hammad
Institute for Combustion and Gas Dynamics – Reactive Fluids
Faculty of Engineering
University of Duisburg-Essen

  • Synthesis of composite nanoparticles for environmental applications
  • Upscaling the functionalization process of inorganic nanoparticles
  • Development of protocols for the formulation of catalyst inks

Dr. Philipp Gerschel
Inorganic Chemistry I / Bioinorganic Chemistry
Faculty of Chemistry and Biochemistry
Ruhr University Bochum

  • Development of electrocatalysts for CO2 reduction and H2 evolution
  • Electrode fabrication and optimization
  • Electrocatalysis with subsequent product analysis
  • Spectroelectrochemical investigation of catalytic intermediates

Dr. Sebastian Sanden
Inorganic Chemistry I / Bioinorganic Chemistry
Faculty of Chemistry and Biochemistry
Ruhr University Bochum

  • Synthesis and characterization of metal chalcogenide electrocatalysts
  • Development of electrode surface functionalizations
  • Fabrication and optimization of electrode designs

Dr. André Oliveira
Technical Chemistry III
Faculty of Chemistry
University of Duisburg‐Essen

  • Electrosynthesis of nanocomposite
  • Electrochemical investigation of catalytic materials

Vimanshu Chanda, M.Sc.
Technical Chemistry III
Faculty of Chemistry
University of Duisburg‐Essen

  • Development of nanomaterials-based gas diffusion electrodes for CO2 electroreduction
  • Synthesis of electrocatalyst using pyrolysis technique
  • Evaluating electrocatalyst activity using GC and HPLC

Raíssa Ribeiro Lima Machado, Master in Engineering
Technical Chemistry III
Faculty of Chemistry
University of Duisburg‐Essen

  • Development and evaluation of electrocatalysts for CO reduction
  • Evaluation of catalyst activity using the Scanning Droplet Cell

Dr. Da Xing
Lehrstuhl Energietechnik
Faculty of Engineering
University of Duisburg‐Essen

  • PEM Fuel Cells Electrocatalysis and characterization of novel platinum group metal-based catalysts
  • Development of new electrochemical test methods for battery cell
  • Development of next-generation active battery electrode materials
  • Experiments using differential electrochemical mass spectrometry, rotating ring-disk electrodes,
    cyclic voltammetry and scanning tunneling microscopy

Leander Kucklick
Lehrstuhl Energietechnik
Faculty of Engineering
University of Duisburg‐Essen

  • Design of Electrochemical Cells
  • High-Throughput Testing and Automation strategies

Associated Scientists

  • Prof. Dr. Hartmut Wiggers, Institute for Combustion and Gasdynamics – Nanoparticle Synthesis, Faculty of Engineering, University of Duisburg-Essen
  • Dr. Christopher Stein, Theory of molecular processes at interfaces, Faculty of Physics, University of Duisburg-Essen
  • Jun.-Prof. Dr. Kai Exner, Theoretical Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Duisburg-Essen
  • Dr. Viktor Colic, Electrochemistry for Energy Conversion, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion
  • Prof. Dr. Markus Stricker, Materials Informatics and Data Science, ICAMS Interdisciplinary Centre for Advanced Materials Simulation
  • Dr. Volker Peinecke, Department Electrochemical Components, The hydrogen and fuel cell center ZBT GmbH
  • Dipl.-Ing. Bernd Oberschachtsiek, Department Electrolysis and Batteries, The hydrogen and fuel cell center ZBT GmbH
  • Dr.-Ing. Lars Banko, Materials Discovery and Interfaces, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ruhr-Universität Bochum
  • Dr.-Ing. Jan Menser, Institute for Combustion and Gas Dynamics – Reactive Fluids, Faculty of Engineering, University of Duisburg‐Essen
  • Dr.-Ing. Irenäus Wlokas, Fluid Dynamics, Faculty of Engineering, University of Duisburg‐Essen

Coordination & Communication

Dr. Marion Franke (Coordination)
CENIDE, NETZ
University of Duisburg-Essen
Email: marion.franke@uni-due.de

Dr. Theresa Schredelseker (Communication)
CENIDE
University of Duisburg-Essen
Email: theresa.schredelseker@uni-due.de

International Partners

Research

Efforts to date have not been sufficient to limit global warming to 1.5 °C and fossil fuels are still being extensively used. For the electrification of the energy system, electrochemical processes are gaining central importance. However, the materials used to date, e.g. for electrolyzers and fuel cells, are exhausted and expensive. It is thus crucial to develop new, high-performance electrochemical functional materials that are based on accessible elements and which can be produced cost-effectively on the required scale. This is where DIMENSION breaks the vicious circle: In order to test the suitability of a new material in use, it needs to be produced in sufficient quantities and integrated into application-oriented components. This requires scale-up and process development for promising candidates (hits), identified in large-scale electrochemical screens.

    DIMENSION combines the accelerated evaluation of new materials with the accelerated development of synthesis and processing methods. This is achieved by the following combination:

    1. High-throughput experiments and material informatics lead precisely to active materials with outstanding electrocatalytic properties. With demonstrated state-of-the-art expertise in this field, the Ruhr University Bochum is a leading hub for these types of experiments
    2. These materials are processed and tested almost simultaneously at the system level.

    The unique equipment at the NETZ building of the University Duisburg-Essen facilitates scaled-up synthesis and application-oriented testing of materials in parallel to scrutinized analysis at the Interdisciplinary Center for Analytics on the Nanoscale (ICAN). By joining forces in DIMENSION, we aim to establish a universal method for filtering out hits early on and developing new materials for energy conversion to the point of industrial applicability.

    Projects

    P1 – Simulation, Generation and Characterization of 2D Composition Spreads


    P1 uses high-throughput calculations and combinatorial synthesis of thin film libraries for the discovery of high-entropy oxides in spinel and perovskite crystal structures.
    After synthesis by reactive co-sputtering, the fabricated films are analysed using high-throughput methods for their chemical compositions, phase constitution and functional properties (electrical and electrochemical properties).
    The identified most promising compositions („hits“) are transferred to the other projects for up-scaling. P1 interacts strongly with P5 on implementing materials informatics methods to accelerate the discovery and optimisation processes.

    P2 – High-throughput spray flame synthesis


    High-throughput materials analysis proved highly valuable for many fields in science and technology. However, this approach is to date completely absent in the field of gas-phase synthesis of functional materials – despite the importance of these methods to be scalable to industrial scale. The objective of P2 is to design and establish a bespoke facility for gas-phase nanoparticle synthesis that enables automated operation, closed-loop control based on in situ optical sensing, and rapid materials sampling. One important aspect is the development and implementation of systems for rapid materials sampling and inline detection as well as the automated harvesting of materials samples for ex situ analysis and downstream processing in P3. The materials selection to be investigated in P2 will be informed by the input from P1 and the complex data handling and analysis will be supported by P5.

    P3 – Electrode Fabrication for 3D HEM/HEO


    In this joint project, the University of Duisburg-Essen, Institute for Combustion and Gas Dynamics – Particle Science and Technology (UDE) and Ruhr University Bochum provide scalable electrodes made of nanoparticles and 2D materials for energy applications. Our mission focuses on the characterization, functionalization, and formulation of functional powders into inks and pastes with subsequent large-scale coating or direct deposition on substrates for sustainable technologies such as fuel cells and electrolyzers. The generated and – in terms of structure and composition – well parameterized electrodes are delivered to P4, where they will be tested in terms of functionality according to the objective of this project.

    P4 – Scaling to the half- and full-cell level


    With potential catalysts and electrode structures in hand, the transfer of found materials is of utmost importance to enable rapid increase of their technology readiness level (TRL) and a potential use in any application. Thus, in a holistic approach, scaling by material tests to the half- and full-cell level as well as the establishment of concepts for test automation will be performed. An important aim herein is to link basic catalyst properties obtained from simple electrochemical tests to electrode assemblies at industrial performance level. This procedure will allow us to rapidly implement high performance electrodes with new catalyst materials, establish knowledge-based design strategies for this task and test them at industrial relevant levels. This will ultimately speed up the development chain from the materials design of new electrocatalysts to full scale electrolyzer systems.

    P5 – Data Interoperability and Machine Learning-based Optimization


    Development of a research data exchange platform for all projects involved in DIMENSION and the application of machine-learning models to advance the discovery of materials for energy conversion at different system levels.

    The typical chain of discovery of active materials is frequently linear in the sense that a set of candidate materials is investigated computationally with the most promising lead compounds being subsequently tested for activity, stability and scalability. The linearity of these tests might lead to an exclusion of compounds that are not top-level for a given property but prove to be top-performers in later stages. The materials discovery can hence be regarded as a highly non-linear optimization problem, with an adaptable objective function.

    To leverage information of experimental results gained at all individual stages of the project, a research data exchange platform needs to be developed that ensures the interoperability of the heterogenous experimental and computational data. This requires experience and knowledge of principles in data semantics and ontology applied to real-world data. This platform will then be the basis for machine learning models that guide computations and experiments upstream and downstream to find suitable materials for energy conversion more efficiently, thereby overcoming the linearity of the process.

    References

    Publications

    DIMENSION-related Publications

    • Razzaq, S., Exner, K.S.: Statistical analysis of breaking scaling relation in the oxygen evolution reaction. Electrochimica Acta. 412, 140125 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2022.140125
    • Löffler, T., Ludwig, A., Rossmeisl, J., Schuhmann, W.: What Makes High-Entropy Alloys Exceptional Electrocatalysts? Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 60, 52, 26894-26903 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.202109212
    • Pedersen, J.K., Clausen, C.M., Krysiak, O.A., Xiao, B., Batchelor, T.A.A., Löffler, T., Mints, V.A., Banko, L., Arenz, M., Savan, A., Schuhmann, W., Ludwig, A., Rossmeisl, J.: Bayesian Optimization of High-Entropy Alloy Compositions for Electrocatalytic Oxygen Reduction**. Angewandte Chemie. 133, 45, 24346-24354 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1002/ange.202108116
    • Quast, T., Varhade, S., Saddeler, S., Chen, Y., Andronescu, C., Schulz, S., Schuhmann, W.: Single Particle Nanoelectrochemistry Reveals the Catalytic Oxygen Evolution Reaction Activity of Co 3 O 4 Nanocubes. Angew Chem Int Ed. 60, 43, 23444-23450 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.202109201
    • Sikdar, N., Junqueira, J.R.C., Dieckhöfer, S., Quast, T., Braun, M., Song, Y., Aiyappa, H.B., Seisel, S., Weidner, J., Öhl, D., Andronescu, C., Schuhmann, W.: A Metal-Organic Framework derived Cu x O y C z Catalyst for Electrochemical CO 2 Reduction and Impact of Local pH Change. Angew Chem Int Ed. 60, 43, 23427-23434 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.202108313
    • Bapat, S., Giehl, C., Kohsakowski, S., Peinecke, V., Schäffler, M., Segets, D. : On the state and stability of fuel cell catalyst inks. Advanced Powder Technology. 32, 10, 3845-3859 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apt.2021.08.030
    • Tetzlaff, D., Pellumbi, K., Puring, K. junge, Siegmund, D., Polet, W.S.K., Checinski, M.P., Apfel, U.-P. : Influence of the Fe : Ni Ratio in Fe x Ni 9-x S 8 (x=3-6) on the CO 2 Electroreduction. ChemElectroChem. 8, 16, 3161-3167 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1002/celc.202100930
    • Nikman, S., Zhao, D., Gonzalez-Perez, V., Hoster, H. E., Mertens, S.F.L.: Surface or bulk? Real-time manganese dissolution detection in a lithium-ion cathode. Electrochimica Acta. 386, 138373 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2021.138373
    • Tetteh, E.B., Banko, L., Krysiak, O.A., Löffler, T., Xiao, B., Varhade, S., Schumacher, S., Savan, A., Andronescu, C., Ludwig, A., Schuhmann, W.: Zooming-in – Visualization of active site heterogeneity in high entropy alloy electrocatalysts using scanning electrochemical cell microscopy. Electrochemical Science Advances. (2021). https://doi.org/10.1002/elsa.202100105
    • Krysiak, O.A., Schumacher, S., Savan, A., Schuhmann, W., Ludwig, A., Andronescu, C. : Searching novel complex solid solution electrocatalysts in unconventional element combinations. Nano Res. (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12274-021-3637-z
    • Ferrari, A., Lysogorskiy, Y., Drautz, R. : Design of refractory compositionally complex alloys with optimal mechanical properties. Physical Review Materials. 5, 6, 063606 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevMaterials.5.063606
    • Exner, K.S. : Why the optimum thermodynamic free-energy landscape of the oxygen evolution reaction reveals an asymmetric shape. Materials Today Energy. 21, 100831 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mtener.2021.100831
    • Exner, K.S. : Why the breaking of the OOH versus OH scaling relation might cause decreased electrocatalytic activity. Chem Catalysis. 1, 2, 258–271 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.checat.2021.06.011
    • Siegmund, D., Metz, S., Peinecke, V., Warner, T.E., Cremers, C., Grevé, A., Smolinka, T., Segets, D., Apfel, U.-P. : Crossing the Valley of Death: From Fundamental to Applied Research in Electrolysis. JACS Au. 1, 5, 527-535 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1021/jacsau.1c00092
    • Song, Y., Junqueira, J.R.C., Sikdar, N., Öhl, D., Dieckhöfer, S., Quast, T., Seisel, S., Masa, J., Andronescu, C., Schuhmann, W.: B-Cu-Zn Gas Diffusion Electrodes for CO 2 Electroreduction to C 2+ Products at High Current Densities. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 60, 16, 9135-9141 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.202016898
    • Batchelor, T.A.A., Löffler, T., Xiao, B., Krysiak, O.A., Strotkötter, V., Pedersen, J.K., Clausen, C.M., Savan, A., Li, Y., Schuhmann, W., Rossmeisl, J., Ludwig, A. : Complex-Solid-Solution Electrocatalyst Discovery by Computational Prediction and High-Throughput Experimentation**. Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 60, 13, 6932-6937 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.202014374
    • Löffler, T., Waag, F., Gökce, B., Ludwig, A., Barcikowski, S., Schuhmann, W.: Comparing the Activity of Complex Solid Solution Electrocatalysts Using Inflection Points of Voltammetric Activity Curves as Activity Descriptors. ACS Catalysis. 11, 3, 1014-1023 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1021/acscatal.0c03313
    • Pittkowski, R., Divanis, S., Klementová, M., Nebel, R., Nikman, S., Hoster, H., Mukerjee, S., Rossmeisl, J., Krtil, P.: Engendering Unprecedented Activation of Oxygen Evolution via Rational Pinning of Ni Oxidation State in Prototypical Perovskite: Close Juxtaposition of Synthetic Approach and Theoretical Conception. ACS Catal. 11, 2, 985-997 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1021/acscatal.0c04733
    • Junge Puring, K., Siegmund, D., Timm, J., Möllenbruck, F., Schemme, S., Marschall, R., Apfel, U.-P. : Electrochemical CO 2 Reduction: Tailoring Catalyst Layers in Gas Diffusion Electrodes. Adv. Sustainable Syst. 5, 1, 2000088 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1002/adsu.202000088
    • Bapat, S., Kilian, S.O., Wiggers, H., Segets, D. : Towards a framework for evaluating and reporting Hansen solubility parameters: applications to particle dispersions. Nanoscale Adv. 3, 15, 4400-4410 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1039/D1NA00405K
    • Mercer, M.P., Peng, C., Soares, C., Hoster, H. E., Kramer, D.: Voltage hysteresis during lithiation/delithiation of graphite associated with meta-stable carbon stackings. J. Mater. Chem. A. 9, 1, 492-504 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1039/D0TA10403E
    • junge Puring, K., Evers, O., Prokein, M., Siegmund, D., Scholten, F., Mölders, N., Renner, M., Roldan Cuenya, B., Petermann, M., Weidner, E., Apfel, U.-P. : Assessing the Influence of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide on the Electrochemical Reduction to Formic Acid Using Carbon-Supported Copper Catalysts. ACS Catal. 10, 21, 12783-12789 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1021/acscatal.0c02983
    • Exner, K.S. : A Universal Descriptor for the Screening of Electrode Materials for Multiple-Electron Processes: Beyond the Thermodynamic Overpotential. ACS Catal. 10, 21, 12607–12617 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1021/acscatal.0c03865
    • Lin, W., Greve, C., Härtner, S., Götz, K., Walter, J., Wu, M., Rechberger, S., Spiecker, E., Busch, S., Schmutzler, T., Avadhut, Y., Hartmann, M., Unruh, T., Peukert, W., Segets, D. : Unraveling Complexity: A Strategy for the Characterization of Anisotropic Core Multishell Nanoparticles. Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 37, 11, 2000145 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1002/ppsc.202000145
    • Masa, J., Andronescu, C., Schuhmann, W.: Electrocatalysis as the Nexus for Sustainable Renewable Energy: The Gordian Knot of Activity, Stability, and Selectivity. Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 59, 36, 15298-15312 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.202007672
    • Bapat, S., Segets, D. : Sedimentation Dynamics of Colloidal Formulations through Direct Visualization: Implications for Fuel Cell Catalyst Inks. ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 3, 8, 7384-7391 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1021/acsanm.0c01467
    • Möller, S., Barwe, S., Dieckhöfer, S., Masa, J., Andronescu, C., Schuhmann, W.: Differentiation between Carbon Corrosion and Oxygen Evolution Catalyzed by Ni x B/C Hybrid Electrocatalysts in Alkaline Solution using Differential Electrochemical Mass Spectrometry. ChemElectroChem. 7, 12, 2680-2686 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1002/celc.202000697
    • Siegmund, D., Blanc, N., Smialkowski, M., Tschulik, K., Apfel, U.-P. : Metal-Rich Chalcogenides for Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution: Activity of Electrodes and Bulk Materials. ChemElectroChem. 7, 7, 1514-1527 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1002/celc.201902125
    • Löffler, T., Savan, A., Meyer, H., Meischein, M., Strotkötter, V., Ludwig, A., Schuhmann, W.: Design of Complex Solid-Solution Electrocatalysts by Correlating Configuration, Adsorption Energy Distribution Patterns, and Activity Curves. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 59, 14, 5844-5850 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201914666
    • Reinhardt, E., Salaheldin, A.M., Distaso, M., Segets, D., Peukert, W.: Rapid Characterization and Parameter Space Exploration of Perovskites Using an Automated Routine. ACS Combinatorial Science. 22, 1, 6-17 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1021/acscombsci.9b00068
    • Wiggers, H., Sehlleier, Y.H., Kunze, F., Xiao, L., Schnurre, S.M., Schulz, C. : Self-assembled nano-silicon/graphite hybrid embedded in a conductive polyaniline matrix for the performance enhancement of industrial applicable lithium-ion battery anodes. Solid State Ionics. 344, 115117 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssi.2019.115117
    • Ludwig, A. : Discovery of new materials using combinatorial synthesis and high-throughput characterization of thin-film materials libraries combined with computational methods. npj Computational Materials. 5, 1, 70 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41524-019-0205-0
    • Cychy, S., Hiltrop, D., Andronescu, C., Muhler, M., Schuhmann, W.: Operando Thin-Layer ATR-FTIR Spectroelectrochemical Radial Flow Cell with Tilt Correction and Borehole Electrode. Anal. Chem. 91, 22, 14323-14331 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.9b02734
    • Mahmoud, A.S., Segets, D. : Cleaning Matters! ACS Combinatorial Science. 21, 11, 722-725 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1021/acscombsci.9b00122
    • Li, Y., Liu, K., Foley, A.M., Zülke, A., Berecibar, M., Nanini-Maury, E., Van Mierlo, J., Hoster, H. E.: Data-driven health estimation and lifetime prediction of lithium-ion batteries: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 113, 109254 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2019.109254
    • Tarnev, T., Aiyappa, H.B., Botz, A., Erichsen, T., Ernst, A., Andronescu, C., Schuhmann, W.: Scanning Electrochemical Cell Microscopy Investigation of Single ZIF-Derived Nanocomposite Particles as Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Evolution in Alkaline Media. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 58, 40, 14265-14269 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201908021
    • O’Mara, P.B., Wilde, P., Benedetti, T.M., Andronescu, C., Cheong, S., Gooding, J.J., Tilley, R.D., Schuhmann, W.: Cascade Reactions in Nanozymes: Spatially Separated Active Sites inside Ag-Core-Porous-Cu-Shell Nanoparticles for Multistep Carbon Dioxide Reduction to Higher Organic Molecules. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 141, 36, 14093-14097 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.9b07310
    • Alkan, B., Cychy, S., Varhade, S., Muhler, M., Schulz, C., Schuhmann, W., Wiggers, H., Andronescu, C. : Spray-Flame-Synthesized LaCo 1− x Fe x O 3 Perovskite Nanoparticles as Electrocatalysts for Water and Ethanol Oxidation. ChemElectroChem. 6, 16, 4266-4274 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1002/celc.201900168
    • Schneider, F., Suleiman, S., Menser, J., Borukhovich, E., Wlokas, I., Kempf, A., Wiggers, H., Schulz, C. : SpraySyn—A standardized burner configuration for nanoparticle synthesis in spray flames. Review of Scientific Instruments. 90, 8, 085108 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5090232
    • Masa, J., Piontek, S., Wilde, P., Antoni, H., Eckhard, T., Chen, Y., Muhler, M., Apfel, U.-P., Schuhmann, W.: Ni-Metalloid (B, Si, P, As, and Te) Alloys as Water Oxidation Electrocatalysts. Adv. Energy Mater. 1900796 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1002/aenm.201900796
    • Löffler, T., Savan, A., Garzón-Manjón, A., Meischein, M., Scheu, C., Ludwig, A., Schuhmann, W.: Toward a Paradigm Shift in Electrocatalysis Using Complex Solid Solution Nanoparticles. ACS Energy Letters. 4, 5, 1206-1214 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1021/acsenergylett.9b00531
    • Chrystie, R.S.M., Janbazi, H., Dreier, T., Wiggers, H., Wlokas, I., Schulz, C. : Comparative study of flame-based SiO2 nanoparticle synthesis from TMS and HMDSO: SiO-LIF concentration measurement and detailed simulation. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute. 37, 1, 1221-1229 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proci.2018.07.024
    • Piontek, S., junge Puring, K., Siegmund, D., Smialkowski, M., Sinev, I., Tetzlaff, D., Roldan Cuenya, B., Apfel, U.-P. : Bio-inspired design: bulk iron-nickel sulfide allows for efficient solvent-dependent CO 2 reduction. Chem. Sci. 10, 4, 1075-1081 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1039/C8SC03555E
    • Schulz, C., Dreier, T., Fikri, M., Wiggers, H.: Gas-phase synthesis of functional nanomaterials: Challenges to kinetics, diagnostics, and process development. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute. 37, 1, 83-108 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proci.2018.06.231
    • Sellmann, J., Rahinov, I., Kluge, S., Jünger, H., Fomin, A., Cheskis, S., Schulz, C., Wiggers, H., Kempf, A., Wlokas, I.: Detailed simulation of iron oxide nanoparticle forming flames: Buoyancy and probe effects. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute. 37, 1, 1241-1248 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proci.2018.06.041
    • Löffler, T., Meyer, H., Savan, A., Wilde, P., Garzón Manjón, A., Chen, Y.-T., Ventosa, E., Scheu, C., Ludwig, A., Schuhmann, W.: Discovery of a Multinary Noble Metal-Free Oxygen Reduction Catalyst. Advanced Energy Materials. 8, 34, 1802269 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1002/aenm.201802269
    • Garzón-Manjón, A., Meyer, H., Grochla, D., Löffler, T., Schuhmann, W., Ludwig, A., Scheu, C.: Controlling the Amorphous and Crystalline State of Multinary Alloy Nanoparticles in An Ionic Liquid. Nanomaterials. 8, 11, 903 (2018). https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8110903
    • Antonopoulos, B.K., Maglia, F., Schmidt-Stein, F., Schmidt, J.P., Hoster, H. E.: Formation of the Solid Electrolyte Interphase at Constant Potentials: A Model Study on Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite. Batteries & Supercaps. 1, 3, 110-121 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1002/batt.201800029
    • Süß, S., Sobisch, T., Peukert, W., Lerche, D., Segets, D. : Determination of Hansen parameters for particles: A standardized routine based on analytical centrifugation. Advanced Powder Technology. 29, 7, 1550-1561 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apt.2018.03.018
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    Institutions

    University of Duisburg-Essen
    Ruhr-Universität Bochum
    UA Ruhr - Materials Chain
    Frauenhofer Umsicht
    Max Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion
    CENIDE
    Materials Research Department at Ruhr-Universität Bochum
    ZBT