Scalable Manufacturing of Nanostructured Materials for Energy Applications Using Gas Phase Deposition
J.R. van Ommen, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands
Nanostructured particles (e.g., core-shell nanoparticles or porous micro-particles containing nanoparticles) have high potential in applications such as catalysis and energy storage. However, to come from product design incorporating nanostructuring to actually making such materials at relevant scales is not trivial. Gas phase deposition using techniques such as chemical vapour deposition (CVD), atomic layer deposition (ALD), and molecular layer deposition (MLD) can be used to provide the surface of a particle with either an ultrathin continuous coating or a decoration of nanoclusters. In this way, we can take benefit from the wide range of chemistries that has been developed over the years for CVD, ALD, and MLD.
When carried out in a fluidized bed or a pneumatic transport reactor, gas phase deposition is an attractive way of producing nanostructured particles with excellent scale-up potential. Even nanopowders can be fluidized to be processed this way, although they are not fluidized as individual particles but as very dilute agglomerates. Since we often process cohesive materials, an effort has to be made to obtain proper dispersion of the particles.
I will show some examples of the application of gas phase deposition to powders. I will demonstrate how it can be deployed to enhance the lifetime of battery cathode powders and LED phosphor powders. Moreover, the application to various areas of catalysis – photo-, electro-, and thermal catalysis – will be discussed.