Prof. Dr. Shaukat Khan
Center for Synchrotron Radiation
TU Dortmund University
- Laser-driven electron storage rings
Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1596 (2020)Advanced accelerator concepts usually address linear acceleration schemes. Storage rings, however, are often superior to linear machines regarding repetition rate, stability and efficiency. The radiative energy loss per turn in an electron storage ring is compensated by radiofrequency resonators with a wavelength of the order of 1 meter, which corresponds to the spacing between consecutive potential wells, so-called buckets, and results in a bunch length around 1 centimeter or several 10 picoseconds. As an alternative, longitudinal focusing could be performed by a laser wave co-propagating with the electrons in an undulator. Considering a continuous-wave carbon dioxide laser beam as an example, the bucket spacing would be 10.6 micrometer with a bunch length in the femtosecond range. The paper discusses chances and limitations of such a laser-driven storage ring concept with steady-state femtosecond bunches. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.
view abstract 10.1088/1742-6596/1596/1/012025
- Harmonic off-axis seeding at the Delta short-pulse source
Meyer auf der Heide, A. and Büsing, B. and Khan, S. and Krieg, D. and Mai, C.
Proceedings of the 39th International Free-Electron Laser Conference, FEL 2019 (2019)At the 1.5-GeV synchrotron light source DELTA operated by the TU Dortmund University, a short-pulse source employs the coherent harmonic generation (CHG) scheme. Here, a laser pulse interacts with a stored electron bunch forming a microbunching structure to generate ultrashort synchrotron light pulses at harmonics of the laser wavelength. As an upgrade of the short-pulse facility, the echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) scheme will be implemented, which requires a second laser-electron interaction to yield much higher harmonics compared to CHG. In a study towards twofold laser seeding, the possibility of seeding at undulator harmonics with a crossing angle between laser and electron beam was investigated. Content from this work may be used under the terms of the CC BY 3.0 licence (© 2019). Any distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s).
view abstract 10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-TUP080
- Seeding R&D at SFLasH
Lechner, C. and Ackermann, S. and Assmann, R.W. and Faatz, B. and Grattoni, V. and Hartl, I. and Hartwell, S.D. and Ivanov, R. and Kazemi, M.M. and Laarmann, T. and Lang, T. and Paraskaki, G. and Przystawik, A. and Zheng, J. and Khan, S. and Azima, A. and Biss, H. and Drescher, M. and Hillert, W. and Miltchev, V. and Rossbach, J.
Proceedings of the 39th International Free-Electron Laser Conference, FEL 2019 (2019)Free-electron lasers (FELs) based on the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) principle generate photon pulses with typically poor longitudinal coherence. FEL seeding techniques greatly improve longitudinal coherence by initiating FEL amplification in a controlled way using coherent light pulses. The sFLASH experiment installed at the FEL user facility FLASH at DESY in Hamburg is dedicated to the study of external seeding techniques. In this paper, the layout of the sFLASH seeding experiment is presented and an overview of recent developments is given. Content from this work may be used under the terms of the CC BY 3.0 licence (© 2019). Any distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s).
view abstract 10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-TUP076
- The 22-Pole Superconducting 7-Tesla Wiggler for the DELTA Storage Ring
Bragin, A.V. and Erokhin, A.I. and Gusev, Y.A. and Khan, S. and Khrushchev, S.V. and Lev, V.K. and Mezentsev, N.A. and Safronov, A.N. and Shkaruba, V.A. and Tarasenko, O.A. and Tsukanov, V.M. and Vasichev, S.S. and Volkov, A.A. and Zorin, A.V.
Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences: Physics 83 (2019)Abstract: A superconducting wiggler with a magnetic field of 7 T is installed as an insertion device for three X-ray beamlines with photon energies of more than 30 keV used at the Dortmund Electron Accelerator (DELTA, Germany), a source of 1.5 GeV synchrotron radiation. Each of the two side beamlines is separated from the central one by 15 mrad and all three beamlines use a horizontal aperture of 5 mrad. To meet these requirements, the insertion device must have a period of 127 mm and a magnetic field of 7 T for the vertical aperture of a beam vacuum chamber 10 mm long and a flange-to-flange distance of 2.2 m. A superconducting 22-pole wiggler with a field of 7 T and a period of 127 mm operating in the zero boil-off mode is described. The concept and main approaches to designing the magnetic and the cryogenic systems are presented, along with the main parameters and results from testing the new 7-tesla superconducting wiggler for the DELTA storage ring. © 2019, Allerton Press, Inc.
view abstract 10.3103/S1062873819020059
- An Option to Generate Seeded FEL Radiation for FLASH1
Grattoni, V. and Assmann, R.W. and Bödewadt, J. and Lechner, C. and Kazemi, M.M. and Manschwetus, B. and Hartl, I. and Plath, T. and Khan, S. and Hillert, W. and Miltchev, V. and Rossbach, J.
Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1067 (2018)The FLASH free-electron laser (FEL) at DESY is currently operated in self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) mode in both beamlines FLASH1 and FLASH2. Seeding offers unique properties for the FEL pulse, such as full coherence, spectral and temporal stability. In this contribution, possible ways to carry the seeded FEL radiation to the user hall are presented with analytical considerations and simulations. For this, components of the sFLASH seeding experiment are used. © 2018 Institute of Physics Publishing. All rights reserved.
view abstract 10.1088/1742-6596/1067/3/032013
- Control of FEL radiation properties by tailoring the seed pulses
Grattoni, V. and Assmann, R.W. and Bödewadt, J. and Lechner, C. and Kazemi, M.M. and Manschwetus, B. and Hartl, I. and Plath, T. and Khan, S. and Azima, A. and Hillert, W. and Miltchev, V. and Rossbach, J.
Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1067 (2018)Seeded free-electron lasers (FELs) produce intense, ultrashort and fully coherent X-ray pulses. These seeded FEL pulses depend on the initial seed properties. Therefore, controlling the seed laser allows tailoring the FEL radiation for phase-sensitive experiments. In this contribution, we present detailed simulation studies to characterize the FEL process and to predict the operation performance of seeded pulses. In addition, we show experimental data on the temporal characterization of the seeded FEL pulses performed at the sFLASH experiment in Hamburg. © 2018 Institute of Physics Publishing. All rights reserved.
view abstract 10.1088/1742-6596/1067/3/032012
- Continuously tunable narrowband pulses in the THz gap from laser-modulated electron bunches in a storage ring
Ungelenk, P. and Honer, M. and Huck, H. and Khan, S. and Mai, C. and Heide, A. M. A. D. and Evain, C. and Szwaj, C. and Bielawski, S.
Physical Review Accelerators and Beams 20 (2017)This article reports on the generation of narrowband coherent synchrotron radiation from an electron storage ring. For the first time, this kind of radiation was now produced with continuously tunable frequencies in the so-called "THz gap" (between 1.2 and 5.6 THz), whereas previous experiments were limited to below 750 GHz. The experiment was performed at the DELTA storage ring in Dortmund, Germany, employing the interaction of external intensity-modulated laser pulses with an electron bunch, which causes a periodic longitudinal modulation of the charge density on a sub-millimeter scale. Furthermore, a strong influence of third-order dispersion in the laser pulses on the bandwidth and peak intensity of the THz radiation was observed. This effect is discussed in detail based on numerical simulations of the laser pulse generation and laser-electron interaction, and a modification of the laser system for compensating third-order dispersion is proposed.
view abstract 10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.20.020706
- Operation of a seeded XUV free-electron laser at DESY with high-gain harmonic generation
Boedewadt, J. and Lechner, C. and Assmann, R. and Azima, A. and Drescher, M. and Ekanayake, N. and Faatz, B. and Hacker, K. and Kazemi, M.M. and Hartl, I. and Khan, S. and Laarmann, T. and Maltezopoulos, T. and Plath, T. and Rossbach, J.
Optics InfoBase Conference Papers Part F43-CLEO_AT 2017 (2017)
view abstract 10.1364/CLEO_AT.2017.JTu4L.5
- Ultrashort high-brightness pulses from storage rings
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 865 (2017)The brightness of short-wavelength radiation from accelerator-based sources can be increased by coherent emission in which the radiation intensity scales with the number of contributing electrons squared. This requires a microbunched longitudinal electron distribution, which is the case in free-electron lasers. The brightness of light sources based on electron storage rings was steadily improved, but could profit further from coherent emission. The modulation of the electron energy by a continuous-wave laser field may provide steady-state microbunching in the infrared regime. For shorter wavelengths, the energy modulation can be converted into a temporary density modulation by a dispersive chicane. One particular goal is coherent emission from a very short slice within an electron bunch in order to produce ultrashort radiation pulses with high brightness. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
view abstract 10.1016/j.nima.2016.07.048
- Synchrotron light sources and free-electron lasers: Accelerator physics, instrumentation and science applications
Jaeschke, E.J. and Khan, S. and Schneider, J.R. and Hastings, J.B.
Synchrotron Light Sources and Free-Electron Lasers: Accelerator Physics, Instrumentation and Science Applications (2016)Hardly any other discovery of the nineteenth century did have such an impact on science and technology as Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen's seminal find of the X-rays. X-ray tubes soon made their way as excellent instruments for numerous applications in medicine, biology, materials science and testing, chemistry and public security. Developing new radiation sources with higher brilliance and much extended spectral range resulted in stunning developments like the electron synchrotron and electron storage ring and the freeelectron laser. This handbook highlights these developments in fifty chapters. The reader is given not only an inside view of exciting science areas but also of design concepts for the most advanced light sources. The theory of synchrotron radiation and of the freeelectron laser, design examples and the technology basis are presented. The handbook presents advanced concepts like seeding and harmonic generation, the booming field of Terahertz radiation sources and upcoming brilliant light sources driven by laser-plasma accelerators. The applications of the most advanced light sources and the advent of nanobeams and fully coherent x-rays allow experiments from which scientists in the past could not even dream. Examples are the diffraction with nanometer resolution, imaging with a full 3D reconstruction of the object from a diffraction pattern, measuring the disorder in liquids with high spatial and temporal resolution. The 20th century was dedicated to the development and improvement of synchrotron light sources with an ever ongoing increase of brilliance. With ultrahigh brilliance sources, the 21st century will be the century of x-ray lasers and their applications. Thus, we are already close to the dream of condensed matter and biophysics: imaging single (macro)molecules and measuring their dynamics on the femtosecond timescale to produce movies with atomic resolution. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.
view abstract 10.1007/978-3-319-14394-1
- Ultrashort pulses from synchrotron radiation sources
Synchrotron Light Sources and Free-Electron Lasers: Accelerator Physics, Instrumentation and Science Applications (2016)Synchrotron light sources with short and tunable wavelength are the workhorses to study the structure of matter. Their pulse duration of tens of picoseconds, however, is insufficient to investigate ultrafast processes on the atomic scale. On the other hand, lasers provide femtosecond pulses, but only at long wavelengths. To fulfill the demand for radiation with short wavelength and short-pulse duration, laser-based table-top sources were developed, e.g., using high-harmonic generation, and a new accelerator-based source of very intense ultrashort X-ray pulses was invented: the free-electron laser (FEL). While presently four shortwavelength FELs exist worldwide as single-user facilities, about 50 synchrotron light sources routinely provide radiation to multiple users simultaneously, often in 24/7 operation. Therefore, this article takes a closer look at methods to extend conventional synchrotron radiation sources toward shorter pulse duration. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.
view abstract 10.1007/978-3-319-14394-1_5
- Measurements and simulations of seeded electron microbunches with collective effects
Hacker, K. and Molo, R. and Khan, S. and Lazzarino, L.L. and Lechner, C. and Maltezopoulos, T. and Plath, T. and Rossbach, J. and Ackermann, S. and Bödewadt, J. and Dohlus, M. and Ekanayake, N. and Laarmann, T. and Schlarb, H.
Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams 18 (2015)Measurements of the longitudinal phase-space distributions of electron bunches seeded with an external laser were done in order to study the impact of collective effects on seeded microbunches in free-electron lasers. When the collective effects of Coulomb forces in a drift space and coherent synchrotron radiation in a chicane are considered, velocity bunching of a seeded microbunch appears to be a viable alternative to compression with a magnetic chicane under high-gain harmonic generation seeding conditions. Measurements of these effects on seeded electron microbunches were performed with a rf deflecting structure and a dipole magnet which streak out the electron bunch for single-shot images of the longitudinal phase-space distribution. Particle tracking simulations in 3D predicted the compression dynamics of the seeded microbunches with collective effects. © 2015 authors. Published by the American Physical Society.
view abstract 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.18.090704
- Gli Protein Activity Is Controlled by Multisite Phosphorylation in Vertebrate Hedgehog Signaling
Niewiadomski, P. and Kong, J. H. and Ahrends, R. and Ma, Y. and Humke, E. W. and Khan, S. and Teruel, M. N. and Novitch, B. G. and Rohatgi, R.
Cell Reports 6 (2014)Gli proteins are transcriptional effectors of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in both normal development and cancer. We describe a program of multisite phosphorylation that regulates the conversion of Gli proteins into transcriptional activators. In the absence of Hh ligands, Gli activity is restrained by the direct phosphorylation of six conserved serine residues by protein kinase A (PKA), a master negative regulator of the Hh pathway. Activation of signaling leads to a global remodeling of the Gli phosphorylation landscape: the PKA target sites become dephosphorylated, while a second cluster of sites undergoes phosphorylation. The pattern of Gli phosphorylation can regulate Gli transcriptional activity in a graded fashion, suggesting a phosphorylation-based mechanism for how a gradient of Hh signaling in a morphogenetic field can be converted into a gradient of transcriptional activity.
view abstract 10.1016/j.celrep.2013.12.003
- Generation of Ultrashort and Coherent Synchrotron Radiation Pulses at DELTA
Khan, S. and Bahnsen, F. and Cramm, S. and Döring, S. and Grewe, J. and Höner, M. and Huck, H. and Huck, M. and Molo, R. and Plucinski, L. and Schick, A. and Schneider, C.M. and Ungelenk, P.
Synchrotron Radiation News 26 (2013)Pump-probe experiments to study ultrafast dynamic phenomena such as electron transfer, lattice vibrations, phase transitions, chemical reactions, or spin dynamics require two short radiation pulses as well as good control of the time delay between them. The first pulse to excite ("pump") the sample under study is usually a femtosecond laser pulse in the near-visible regime. For the second pulse to analyze ("probe") the state of the sample as a function of the delay, however, light with shorter and tunable wavelength would be desirable. Conventional synchrotron light sources produce pulses with a typical duration of 30-100 ps (FWHM), given by the electron bunch length in a storage ring, which is not well suited for ultrafast studies. The bunch length can be reduced to a few picoseconds in the so-called low-α mode (e.g., ) by lowering the momentum compaction factor α of the storage ring. Radiation pulses in the femtosecond range, however, are obtained more easily by extracting synchrotron light from a small fraction of the electron distribution, rather than the whole bunch, which can be achieved with the laser-based methods described below. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
view abstract 10.1080/08940886.2013.791213
- Coherent harmonic generation at DELTA: A new facility for ultrashort pulses in the VUV and THZ regime
Khan, S. and Bakr, M. and Höner, M. and Huck, H. and Molo, R. and Nowaczyk, A. and Schick, A. and Ungelenk, P. and Zeinalzadeh, M.
Synchrotron Radiation News 24 (2011)
view abstract 10.1080/08940886.2011.618092
- Quercetin and catechin attenuate chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis in murine thymocytes
Prakash, A. and Khan, S. and Aggarwal, M. and Telang, A. and Malik, J.
Toxicology Letters 196 (2010)
view abstract 10.1016/j.toxlet.2010.03.686
coherent harmonic generation