Dr.-Ing. Daniel Hülsbusch
TU Dortmund University
- Constant temperature approach for the assessment of injection molding parameter influence on the fatigue behavior of short glass fiber reinforced polyamide 6
Mrzljak, S. and Delp, A. and Schlink, A. and Zarges, J.-C. and Hülsbusch, D. and Heim, H.-P. and Walther, F.
Polymers 13 (2021)Short glass fiber reinforced plastics (SGFRP) offer superior mechanical properties compared to polymers, while still also enabling almost unlimited geometric variations of components at large-scale production. PA6-GF30 represents one of the most used SGFRP for series components, but the impact of injection molding process parameters on the fatigue properties is still insufficiently investigated. In this study, various injection molding parameter configurations were investigated on PA6-GF30. To take the significant frequency dependency into account, tension–tension fatigue tests were performed using multiple amplitude tests, considering surface temperature-adjusted frequency to limit self-heating. The frequency adjustment leads to shorter testing durations as well as up to 20% higher lifetime under fatigue loading. A higher melt temperature and volume flow rate during injection molding lead to an increase of 16% regarding fatigue life. In situ X-ray microtomography analysis revealed that this result was attributed to a stronger fiber alignment with larger fiber lengths in the flow direction. Using digital volume correlation, differences of up to 100% in local strain values at the same stress level for different injection molding process parameters were identified. The results prove that the injection molding parameters have a high influence on the fatigue properties and thus offer a large optimization potential, e.g., with regard to the component design. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
view abstract 10.3390/polym13101569
- In situ characterization of polycaprolactone fiber response to quasi-static tensile loading in scanning electron microscopy
Delp, A. and Becker, A. and Hülsbusch, D. and Scholz, R. and Müller, M. and Glasmacher, B. and Walther, F.
Polymers 13 (2021)Microstructural responses to the mechanical load of polymers used in tissue engineering is notably important for qualification at in vivo testing, although insufficiently studied, especially regarding promising polycaprolactone (PCL). For further investigations, electrospun PCL scaffolds with different degrees of fiber alignment were produced, using two discrete relative drum collector velocities. Development and preparation of an adjusted sample geometry enabled in situ tensile testing in scanning electron microscopy. By analyzing the microstructure and the use of selected tracking techniques, it was possible to visualize and quantify fiber/fiber area displacements as well as local fractures of single PCL fibers, considering quasi-static tensile load and fiber alignment. The possibility of displacement determination using in situ scanning electron microscopy techniques for testing fibrous PCL scaffolds was introduced and quantified. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
view abstract 10.3390/polym13132090
- Shear Characterization of Additively Manufactured Short Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer
Striemann, P. and Bulach, S. and Hülsbusch, D. and Niedermeier, M. and Walther, F.
Macromolecular Symposia 395 (2021)The additive manufacturing (AM) techniques Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM™) or Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) are all based on material extrusion and are one of the most widely used AM methods. Serial production with this technology requires a deep understanding for the process and the effects of the process parameters on the mechanical properties. In literature tensile, compression, or flexural properties are often considered. However, the basic structure of a FFF part is strongly anisotropic and therefore similar to a composite material. The characterization of a carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) involves additional material properties. One of the most informative quality values for CFRP is the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) in the midplane direction. The ILSS can be handled in an equivalent way for AM parts in form of the interlayer shear strength. The literature shows various approaches, but no existing standard to determine the interlayer shear strength for FFF parts. The aim of the study is a suitable experimental setup for identifying the interlayer shear strength of AM parts. The experimental setup and the specimen geometry in accordance with DIN 65148 are adapted to ensure an interlayer failure mode between two layers. The newly developed test approach is validated with a test series showing a decrease in ILSS of up to 40% by increasing the layer height. © 2021 Wiley-VCH GmbH
view abstract 10.1002/masy.202000247
- Testing procedure for fatigue characterization of steel‐cfrp hybrid laminate considering material dependent self‐heating
Mrzljak, S. and Schmidt, S. and Kohl, A. and Hülsbusch, D. and Hausmann, J. and Walther, F.
Materials 14 (2021)Combining carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) with steel offers the potential of utilizing the desired characteristics of both materials, such as specific strength/stiffness and fatigue strength of fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) and impact resistance of metals. Since in such hybrid laminates multiple material layers are combined, a gradual failure is likely that can lead to changes in mechanical properties. A failure of the metal partner leads to an increase in stress on the FRP, which under fatigue load results in increased self‐heating of the FRP. Therefore, a suitable testing procedure is required and developed in this study, to enable a reproducible characterization of the mechanical properties under fatigue load. The resulting testing procedure, containing multiple frequency tests as well as load increase and constant amplitude tests, enabled characterization of the fatigue performance while never exceeding a testing induced change in temperature of 4 K. In addition to the development of the testing procedure, an insight into the manufacturing induced residual stresses occurring in such hybrid laminates, which impacts the load‐bearing capacity, was established using finite element simulation. The gathered data and knowledge represents a basis for future in‐depth investigations in the area of residual stress influence on the performance of hybrid laminates and highlights its importance, since not only the used testing procedure determines the measured fatigue performance. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
view abstract 10.3390/ma14123394
- Comparison of the damage evolution in glass fiber-reinforced polyurethane and epoxy in the HCF and VHCF regimes investigated by intermittent in situ X-ray computed tomography
Hülsbusch, D. and Helwing, R. and Mrzljak, S. and Walther, F.
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 942 (2020)The aim of this work is the comparative characterization of the fatigue and damage behaviors of GFR-polyurethane and GFR-epoxy with application-relevant quasi-isotropic layer setup in the high cycle and very-high cycle fatigue regimes. Therefore, a high-frequency test method based on a resonant testing system (1 kHz) has been further developed and assessed with special consideration of self-heating. In intermittent test procedures, the damage state has been explored by in situ X-ray computed tomography analysis after certain numbers of cycles. It was shown that the overall damage state in the VHCF regime is reduced by a factor of three compared to the HCF regime and accompanied by delayed initiation and propagation of delamination. The latter was proven to be the main reason for a decreased inclination of the S/N-curve in the VHCF regime by 50-60%. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.
view abstract 10.1088/1757-899X/942/1/012036
- Development of an energy-based approach for optimized frequency selection for fatigue testing on polymers – Exemplified on polyamide 6
Hülsbusch, D. and Kohl, A. and Striemann, P. and Niedermeier, M. and Strauch, J. and Walther, F.
Polymer Testing 81 (2020)Polymers and composite materials show temperature-dependent material properties. Therefore, the frequency resembles a critical part in fatigue testing, due to its influence on the self-heating of the polymeric material and thereby on the number of cycles to failure. The aim of this paper is the development of a testing method, which allows comparable results with varying frequencies. To minimize the self-heating effect on the fatigue behavior, a model was established for selecting optimized frequencies regarding the load-specific temperature increase of the specimen. A new energy-parameter, the induced energy-rate, was introduced and correlated to the load-specific increase in temperature in multiple and constant amplitude tests at ambient conditions. With this approach, it was possible to determine a threshold value for the newly defined induced energy-rate. A stress-specific model was developed and a limit frequency was calculated. The results were verified in multiple and constant amplitude tests and S/N-curves. © 2019
view abstract 10.1016/j.polymertesting.2019.106260
- Optimization and quality evaluation of the interlayer bonding performance of additively manufactured polymer structures
Striemann, P. and Hülsbusch, D. and Niedermeier, M. and Walther, F.
Polymers 12 (2020)The application of additive manufacturing changes from prototypes to series production. In order to fulfill all requirements of series production, the process and the material characteristics must be known. The machine operator of additive manufacturing systems is both a component and a material producer. Nevertheless, there is no standardized procedure for the manufacturing or testing of such materials. This includes the high degree of anisotropy of additively manufactured polymers via material extrusion. The interlayer bonding performance between two layers in the manufacturing direction z is the obvious weakness that needs to be improved. By optimizing this interlayer contact zone, the overall performance of the additively manufactured polymer is increased. This was achieved by process modification with an infrared preheating system (IPS) to keep the temperature of the interlayer contact zone above the glass transition temperature during the manufacturing process. Combining destructive and non-destructive testing methods, the process modification IPS was determined and evaluated by a systematic approach for characterizing the interlayer bonding performance. Thereby, tensile tests under quasi-static and cyclic loading were carried out on short carbon flber-reinforced polyamide (SCFRP). In addition, micro-computed tomography and microscopic investigations were used to determine the process quality. The IPS increases the ultimate inter layer tensile strength by approx. 15% and shows at end encyto significantly improved the fatigue properties. Simultaneously, the analysis of the micro-computed tomography data shows a homogenization of the void distribution by using the IPS. © 2020 by the authors.
view abstract 10.3390/POLYM12051166
- Systematic approach for the characterization of additive manufactured and injection molded short carbon fiber-reinforced polymers under tensile loading
Striemann, P. and Huelsbusch, D. and Mrzljak, S. and Niedermeier, M. and Walther, F.
Materialpruefung/Materials Testing 62 (2020)Material extrusion-based additive manufacturing techniques such as fused deposition modeling or fused filament fabrication are developing from prototyping applications to serial components. The aim of this study is to properly characterize an additively manufactured polymer with the corresponding process-induced defects. To this effect, varied manufacturing orientations of fused filament fabrication were tested with a single-batch material manufactured by injection molding serving as a reference. Scans were carried out via micro-computed tomography to assess the void content and distribution with respect to quality. Local material performance was investigated via quasi-static and cyclic tests under tensile loading. The quasi-static tensile tests indicated a significant reduction of Young's modulus, tensile strength, and strain at fracture for the additively manufactured polymer. The mechanical investigations with cyclic loading intensified this trend of clear reduced mechanical properties due to process-induced defects. The quality assessment revealed void volume contents of the additively manufactured polymer of up to 6.5 % and a void distribution dependent on manufacturing orientation. The results of this study are valuable as design guidelines for highly stressed components and serve as a basis for further characterizations of process-induced defects. © Carl Hanser Verlag, München Materials Testing
view abstract 10.3139/120.111517
- Experimental characterization of the structural deformation of type IV pressure vessels subjected to internal pressure
Nebe, M. and Maraite, D. and Braun, C. and Hülsbusch, D. and Walther, F.
Key Engineering Materials 809 KEM (2019)The investigations deal with the experimental characterization of the structural deformation of type IV pressure vessels subjected to internal pressure. For the widespread use of hydrogen technology in transport industries, the development of cost-effective storage systems is a crucial step. State of the art in the field of hydrogen storage are type IV pressure vessels, which consist of a polymeric liner and an enforcing winding of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP). For the development of material-optimized and high-safety pressure vessels, the acquisition of reliable experimental data in order to validate numerical simulations is a necessity. In a specially designed test chamber subscale vessels are clamped and subjected to internal pressure. At defined pressure stages the vessel’s deformation is recorded and analyzed. Consequently, the overall structural deformation is assessed with regard to the used structural mass, the burst pressure and the resulting failure. The results can be used for structure optimization purposes as well as for the optimization of numerical simulation models. © 2019 Trans Tech Publications Ltd, Switzerland.
view abstract 10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.809.47
- In situ computed tomography for the characterization of the fatigue damage development in glass fiber-reinforced polyurethane
Hülsbusch, D. and Mrzljak, S. and Walther, F.
Materialpruefung/Materials Testing 61 (2019)Fiber-reinforced polymers show a continuous material degradation under cyclic loading, which is why damage development has to be investigated for an exact assessment of fatigue properties. In order to obtain information on damage in the internal volume, conventional mechanical test methods require accompanying support by further developed techniques. In this study, a methodology for in situ computed tomography has been developed and applied to glass fiber-reinforced polyurethane. Polyurethane has advantages over epoxy in terms of impact strength, damage tolerance and abrasion, which are important for various applications. Fatigue properties, on the other hand, are largely unknown. Optimized imaging parameters for computed tomography have been established in order to obtain detailed 3D volume images suitable for analysis. The 3D volumes of the damage state were recorded according to defined fatigue load steps and used to evaluate and correlate the damage development with the mechanical properties. The results confirm known damage characteristics of fiber-reinforced composites but also show material and structure-related differences in crack formation and propagation. © Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH & Co. KG.
view abstract 10.3139/120.111389
- Influence of process parameters, surface topography and corrosion condition on the fatigue behavior of steel/aluminum hybrid joints produced by magnetic pulse welding
Mrzljak, S. and Gelinski, N. and Hülsbusch, D. and Schumacher, E. and Boehm, S. and Walther, F.
Key Engineering Materials 809 KEM (2019)In this study, magnetic pulse welded steel/aluminum hybrid joints are investigated with the aim of optimizing the process parameters regarding the fatigue behavior. Changes in discharge current, acceleration distance, welding geometry as well as influences of surface topography and corrosion, are examined regarding fatigue life and damage mechanisms. Instrumented multiple amplitude tests combined with constant amplitude tests are carried out for assessing structure-property-relations in a resource-efficient manner. Stress-induced change in strain and alternating current potential drop measurement are well suited for reliable detection of damage initiation and estimation of the fatigue limit. Results reveal that the fatigue properties primarily depend on the imperfections of the weld seam, which are affected mostly by the discharge current and the surface topography. Corrosion shows to be a relevant factor since it decreases fatigue performance. Suitable process parameters are achieved when the fatigue strength of the weld seam lies above the weaker hybrid joint (aluminum). For S235JR and EN AW-1050A-H14 (Al99.5) a suitable discharge current was found to be 349 kA at an acceleration distance of 1.5 mm. © 2019 Trans Tech Publications Ltd, Switzerland.
view abstract 10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.809.197
- Quasi-static characterization of polyamide-based discontinuous CFRP manufactured by additive manufacturing and injection molding
Striemann, P. and Hülsbusch, D. and Niedermeier, M. and Walther, F.
Key Engineering Materials 809 KEM (2019)Generating serial components via additive manufacturing (AM) a deep understanding of process-related characteristics is necessary. The extrusion-based AM called fused layer manufacturing (FLM), also known as fused deposition modeling (FDM™) or fused filament fabrication (FFF) is an AM process for producing serial components. Improving mechanical properties of AM parts is done by adding fibers in the raw material to reinforce the polymer. The study aims to create a more detailed comprehension of FLM and process-related characteristics with their influence on the composite. Thereby, a short carbon fiber-reinforced polyamide (CarbonX™ Nylon, 3DXTECH, USA) with 12.5 wt.-% fiber content, 7 μm fiber diameter, and 150 to 400 µm fiber length distribution was investigated. To separate process-related characteristics of FLM, reference specimens were fabricated via injection molding (IM) with single-batch material. For the mechanical characterization, quasi-static tensile tests were carried out in accordance to DIN 527-2. Quality assessment including void content and void distribution was performed via micro-computed tomography (CT). The mechanical characterization clarifies effects on mechanical properties depending on process-related characteristics of FLM. CT scans show higher void contents of FLM specimens compared to IM specimens and void orientation dependent on printing direction. FLM shows process-related characteristics which generally strengthen mechanical properties of polymers. Nevertheless, tensile strength of FLM specimens decrease by more than 28% compared to quasi-homogenous IM specimens. © 2019 Trans Tech Publications Ltd, Switzerland.
view abstract 10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.809.386
- Compression testing of additively manufactured continuous carbon fiber-reinforced sandwich structures
Eichenhofer, M. and Schupp, D. and Niedermeier, M. and Hülsbusch, D. and Walther, F. and Striemann, P.
Materialpruefung/Materials Testing 60 (2018)Druckversuch von additiv gefertigten und kontinuierlich kohlenstoff-faserverstärkten Sandwichstrukturen. Das neuartige Verfahren Continuous Lattice Fabrication kombiniert die Vorteile einer kontinuierlichen Faserverstärkung und der additiven Fertigung. Dabei kann die Faserverstärkung nicht nur innerhalb einzelner Schichten, sondern auch kraft-flussgerecht (out-of-plane) im dreidimensionalen Raum generiert werden. Ziel dieses Beitrags ist eine testbasierte Bewertung von Sandwichstrukturen mit fachwerkähnlichen Kernstrukturen durch die Modifikation eines Druckversuchs. Dafür wurden Proben differentiell mit Steck- und Klebe-verbindungen sowie automatisch mittels continuous lattice fabrication gefertigt. Zusätzlich wurde die räumliche Anordnung der Fachwerkstäbe, durch verschiedene Grundflächen und Stabwinkel, variiert. Ultraleicht-bau-Strukturen mit fachwerkähnlichen Kernstrukturen haben Kerndich-ten kleiner 10 mg × cm-3. Die grundlegende werkstoffmechanische Unter-suchung wurde mit Hilfe eines modifizierten einachsigen Druckversuchs bei Raumtemperatur durchgeführt. Die erarbeitete Systematik zur Scha-densanalyse legt zukünftiges Optimierungspotential des noch jungen Ver-fahrens offen. Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass die Sandwichelemente mit einer Kernstrukturdichte von 6.57 mg × cm-3 eine Druckfestigkeit von bis zu 0.30 MPa aufweisen. Durch Auswertung einer dimensionslosen Leicht-baukennzahl konnte gezeigt werden, dass die Kennwerte der entwickel-ten Strukturen auf einem ähnlichen Niveau mit ausgewählten techni-schen Kernmaterialien liegen. © Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH & Co. KG.
view abstract 10.3139/120.111216
- Characterization of hybrid joining techniques for FRP/Steel-structures under combined mechanical and thermal loading
Hoepfner, M. and Becker, T. and Hülsbusch, D. and Walther, F.
Key Engineering Materials 742 KEM (2017)In order to optimize the design of vibrating screening machines and realize significant weight reductions, the use of hybrid structures is gaining importance. In this context, the joining of FRP and steel and their interactions due to different material properties were investigated. Therefore, quasi-static tests with combined mechanical and thermal loads were carried out. To realize the simultaneous application of physical measurement techniques, e.g. optical and acoustic measurements, and thermal loads, short-wave infrared emitter technique was used instead of thermal chambers. Thus, the mechanical characteristics and acoustic emissions could be determined and assessed. The results show different structural mechanisms of hybrid joining at room and elevated temperatures. The characteristics of failure modes, shear stresses, strains and acoustic emissions could be correlated to determine the damage developments and mechanisms. © 2017 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.
view abstract 10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.742.358
- Comparative characterization of quasi-static and cyclic deformation behavior of glass fiber-reinforced polyurethane (GFR-PU) and epoxy (GFR-EP)
Hülsbusch, D. and Jamrozy, M. and Frieling, G. and Mueller, Y. and Barandun, G.A. and Niedermeier, M. and Walther, F.
Materialpruefung/Materials Testing 59 (2017)Glass fiber-reinforced polymers (GFRP) are highly suitable for use in transportation industry in order to achieve the targets of energy and resource efficiency. In this context, due to its high specific strength, GFR-epoxy (GFR-EP) has already been implemented in a wide range of applications. However, in cases of energy efficiency and damage tolerance, GFR-EP shows disadvantages compared to GFR-polyurethane (GFR-PU). The aim of this study is the comparative characterization of the quasi-static and cyclic deformation behavior of GFR-PU and GFR-EP with similar layer setup. The mechanical properties have been investigated in instrumented tensile, interlaminar shear strength and compression after impact tests. In addition, the tests were combined with varying temperatures (-30 °C, RT, +70 °C) with respect to aerospace applications to determine the material property development under low and elevated temperatures. In cyclic investigations, the fatigue properties have been estimated by resource-efficient multiple step tests and validated in constant amplitude tests. Hysteresis and temperature measurements were applied in order to investigate the damage processes. It could be shown that polyurethane exhibits improved damage tolerance by significantly reducing delamination area under impact loading, whereas epoxy leads to optimized properties under elevated temperature. Furthermore, epoxy generally underlines higher capabilities under cyclic loading, which is due to void content of polyurethane. © Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH &Co. KG.
view abstract 10.3139/120.110972
- Mechanism-oriented characterization of the fatigue behavior of glass fiber-reinforced polyurethane based on hysteresis and temperature measurements
Hülsbusch, D. and Jamrozy, M. and Mrzljak, S. and Walther, F.
Key Engineering Materials 742 KEM (2017)In order to optimize resource efficiency, glass fiber-reinforced polymers (GFRP) have been implemented in recent years in a wide range of applications in transportation industry. In this context, GFR-epoxy (GFR-EP) is currently being used mainly because of their sufficiently investigated properties and production processes. Polyurethane (PU), however, shows advantages in terms of energy efficiency and damage tolerance. The aim of this study is the characterization of the fatigue behavior of GFR-PU by stepwise exploration of damage development on microscopic level. Therefore, multiple amplitude and constant amplitude tests have been carried out. Hysteresis and temperature measurements were applied in order to investigate the damage processes and correlated with in situ computed tomography (CT) in intermitting tests. The damage development and mechanisms could be characterized and separated. The results confirm known GFRP damage characteristics, whereas also material-specific peculiarities regarding crack development could be revealed. © 2017 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.
view abstract 10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.742.629
- Assessment of Influence of Corrosive Environment on Fatigue Performance of Intrinsic CFRP/Steel Hybrids
Klein, M. and Hülsbusch, D. and Siddique, S. and Walther, F.
Materials Today: Proceedings 3 (2016)Hybrid structures are very attractive for lightweight applications, e.g. in automotive or aircraft industries. For safe and efficient usage in such applications, high fatigue strength and good corrosion resistance are mandatory with regard to loading under service conditions. In the present study the fatigue performance of two intrinsically produced hybrid structures with different steel constituents in air and salt spray environment was investigated to describe the influence of superimposed corrosion loads. Additionally, the corrosion behavior was characterized in potentiodynamic polarization measurements and afterwards correlated with the fatigue results, leading to a quantitatively describable process-structure-property relationship for corrosion influence on fatigue performance of intrinsic CFRP/steel hybrids. Both hybrid structures exhibited galvanic corrosion, wherein one material combination showed significantly higher corrosion rates leading to worse corrosion fatigue behavior in salt spray environment. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.
view abstract 10.1016/j.matpr.2016.07.005
fiber reinforced plastics