Prof. Dr. Michael Horn-Von Hoegen

Experimental Physics
University of Duisburg-Essen

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  • Broad background in electron diffraction of 2D materials as a signature of their superior quality
    Petrović, M. and Meyer Zu Heringdorf, F.J. and Horn-von Hoegen, M. and Thiel, P.A. and Tringides, M.C.
    Nanotechnology 32 (2021)
    An unusually broad bell-shaped component (BSC) has been previously observed in surface electron diffraction on different types of 2D systems. It was suggested to be an indicator of uniformity of epitaxial graphene (Gr) and hexagonal boron nitride (hBN). In the current study we use low-energy electron microscopy and micro-diffraction to directly relate the BSC to the crystal quality of the diffracting 2D material. Specially designed lateral heterostructures were used to map the spatial evolution of the diffraction profile across different 2D materials, namely pure hBN, BCN alloy and pure Gr, where the alloy region exhibits deteriorated structural coherency. The presented results show that the BSC intensity has a minimum in the alloyed region, consequently showing that BSC is sensitive to the lateral domain size and homogeneity of the material under examination. This is further confirmed by the presence of a larger number of sharp moiré spots when the BSC is most pronounced in the pure hBN and Gr regions. Consequently, it is proposed that the BSC can be used as a diagnostic tool for determining the quality of the 2D materials. © 2021 IOP Publishing Ltd.
    view abstract10.1088/1361-6528/ac244f
  • Hot carrier transport limits the displacive excitation of coherent phonons in bismuth
    Jnawali, G. and Boschetto, D. and Malard, L.M. and Heinz, T.F. and Sciaini, G. and Thiemann, F. and Payer, T. and Kremeyer, L. and Meyer Zu Heringdorf, F.-J. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M.
    Applied Physics Letters 119 (2021)
    We performed femtosecond transient reflectivity measurements on epitaxially grown bismuth (Bi) films in the weak photoexcitation regime. Single crystalline ultrathin Bi films down to a thickness of 7 nm enabled us to determine a clear correspondence between the amplitude of the coherent A 1 g phonon and the photoexcitation level. We were able to empirically measure the effective hot carrier penetration length that determines the excited carrier density governing the magnitude of the coherent A 1 g phonon in Bi. Our findings suggest that the transport behavior of hot carriers is to be taken into consideration in order to provide insights into the mechanism for the displacive excitation of coherent phonons. © 2021 Author(s).
    view abstract10.1063/5.0056813
  • Implementation and operation of a fiber-coupled CMOS detector in a low energy electron Microscope
    Janoschka, D. and Dreher, P. and Rödl, A. and Franz, T. and Schaff, O. and Horn-von Hoegen, M. and Meyer zu Heringdorf, F.-J.
    Ultramicroscopy 221 (2021)
    The intrinsically weak signals in ultrafast electron microscopy experiments demand an improvement in the signal-to noise ratio of suitable electron detectors. We provide an experience report describing the installation and operation of a fiber-coupled CMOS based detector in a low energy electron microscope. We compare the detector performance to the traditional multi-channel-plate-based setup. The high dynamic range CMOS detector is capable of imaging spatially localized large intensity variations with low noise. The detector is blooming-free and overexposure appears uncritical. Overall, we find dramatic improvements in the imaging with the fiber-coupled CMOS detector compared to imaging with our previously used multi-channel-plate detector. © 2020 Elsevier B.V.
    view abstract10.1016/j.ultramic.2020.113180
  • Non-conventional bell-shaped diffuse scattering in low-energy electron diffraction from high-quality epitaxial 2D-materials
    Omambac, K. and Kriegel, M. and Brand, C. and Finke, B. and Kremeyer, L. and Hattab, H. and Janoschka, D. and Dreher, P. and Meyer zu Heringdorf, F.-J. and Momeni Pakdehi, D. and Pierz, K. and Schumacher, H.W. and Petrović, M. and van Houselt, A. and Poelsema, B. and Tringides, M.C. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M.
    Applied Physics Letters 118 (2021)
    A broad, bell-shaped intensity component is observed in low-energy electron diffraction from high-quality epitaxial 2D-systems. Three 2D-systems, graphene on Ir(111), graphene on SiC(0001), and hexagonal boron nitride on Ir(111), have been prepared in situ under ultra-high vacuum conditions. In all three systems—independent of substrate material—similar strong diffuse intensity is observed, exhibiting a width as large as 50% of the Brillouin zone and an integrated intensity more than 10 times the intensity of the Bragg spots. The presented experimental results provide evidence for a common origin of such diffuse diffraction intensity in different atomically thin 2D-materials. © 2021 Author(s).
    view abstract10.1063/5.0051220
  • Segregation-Enhanced Epitaxy of Borophene on Ir(111) by Thermal Decomposition of Borazine
    Omambac, K.M. and Petrović, M. and Bampoulis, P. and Brand, C. and Kriegel, M.A. and Dreher, P. and Janoschka, D. and Hagemann, U. and Hartmann, N. and Valerius, P. and Michely, T. and Meyer Zu Heringdorf, F.J. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M.
    ACS Nano 15 (2021)
    Like other 2D materials, the boron-based borophene exhibits interesting structural and electronic properties. While borophene is typically prepared by molecular beam epitaxy, we report here on an alternative way of synthesizing large single-phase borophene domains by segregation-enhanced epitaxy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that borazine dosing at 1100 °C onto Ir(111) yields a boron-rich surface without traces of nitrogen. At high temperatures, the borazine thermally decomposes, nitrogen desorbs, and boron diffuses into the substrate. Using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, we show that during cooldown the subsurface boron segregates back to the surface where it forms borophene. In this case, electron diffraction reveals a (6 × 2) reconstructed borophene χ6-polymorph, and scanning tunneling spectroscopy suggests a Dirac-like behavior. Studying the kinetics of borophene formation in low energy electron microscopy shows that surface steps are bunched during the borophene formation, resulting in elongated and extended borophene domains with exceptional structural order. ©
    view abstract10.1021/acsnano.1c00819
  • Violation of Boltzmann Equipartition Theorem in Angular Phonon Phase Space Slows down Nanoscale Heat Transfer in Ultrathin Heterofilms
    Hanisch-Blicharski, A. and Tinnemann, V. and Wall, S. and Thiemann, F. and Groven, T. and Fortmann, J. and Tajik, M. and Brand, C. and Frost, B.-O. and Von Hoegen, A. and Horn-von Hoegen, M.
    Nano Letters 21 (2021)
    Heat transfer through heterointerfaces is intrinsically hampered by a thermal boundary resistance originating from the discontinuity of the elastic properties. Here, we show that with shrinking dimensions the heat flow from an ultrathin epitaxial film through atomically flat interfaces into a single crystalline substrate is significantly reduced due to violation of Boltzmann equipartition theorem in the angular phonon phase space. For films thinner than the phonons mean free path, we find phonons trapped in the film by total internal reflection, thus suppressing heat transfer. Repopulation of those phonon states, which can escape the film through the interface by transmission and refraction, becomes the bottleneck for cooling. The resulting nonequipartition in the angular phonon phase space slows down the cooling by more than a factor of 2 compared to films governed by phonons diffuse scattering. These allow tailoring of the thermal interface conductance via manipulation of the interface. © 2021 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society.
    view abstract10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c01665
  • Adsorbate induced manipulation of 1D atomic wires: Degradation of long-range order in the Si(553)-Au system
    Hafke, B. and Witte, T. and Brand, C. and Horn-von Hoegen, M.
    Surface Science 700 (2020)
    Deposition of Au on vicinal Si(553) surfaces results in the self-assembly of one-dimensional (1D) Au atomic wires. Charge transfer from the Au wire to the Si step edge leads to a chain of Si dangling-bond orbitals with a long range ordered threefold periodicity along the steps and finite interchain interaction perpendicular to the steps. Employing spot-profile analysis low-energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED) we observed a broadening of spot width with time, indicative for the degradation of Si dangling-bond chain and Au wire length. We introduce a new mechanism how adsorbates act as origin for this degradation beyond the intuitive picture of bond saturation. Here, zero-dimensional anti-phase translational domain boundaries are generated which immediately destroy the long-range order along and perpendicular to the steps, respectively. From the temporal evolution of the decreasing coherence length, we conclude that the Au wires are less reactive to adsorption than the Si dangling bond chains. © 2020 Elsevier B.V.
    view abstract10.1016/j.susc.2020.121673
  • High Layer Uniformity of Two-Dimensional Materials Demonstrated Surprisingly from Broad Features in Surface Electron Diffraction
    Chen, S. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M. and Thiel, P.A. and Kaminski, A. and Schrunk, B. and Speliotis, T. and Conrad, E.H. and Tringides, M.C.
    Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 11 (2020)
    Paradoxically, a very broad diffraction background, named the bell-shaped-component (BSC), has been established as a feature of graphene growth. Recent diffraction studies as a function of electron energy have shown that the BSC is not related to scattering interference. Here, additional experiments are carried out as a function of temperature over the range in which single-layer graphene (SLG) grows. Quantitative fitting of the profiles shows that the BSC follows the increase of the Gr(10) spot, proving directly that the BSC indicates high-quality graphene. Additional metal deposition experiments provide more information about the BSC. The BSC is insensitive to metal deposition, and it increases with metal intercalation, because a more uniform interface forms between graphene and SiC. These experiments support the conclusion that the BSC originates from electron confinement within SLG, and surprisingly, it is an excellent measure of graphene uniformity. © 2020 American Chemical Society. All rights reserved.
    view abstract10.1021/acs.jpclett.0c02113
  • Thermally Induced Crossover from 2D to 1D Behavior in an Array of Atomic Wires: Silicon Dangling-Bond Solitons in Si(553)-Au
    Hafke, B. and Brand, C. and Witte, T. and Sothmann, B. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M. and Erwin, S.C.
    Physical Review Letters 124 (2020)
    The self-assembly of submonolayer amounts of Au on the densely stepped Si(553) surface creates an array of closely spaced "atomic wires" separated by 1.5 nm. At low temperature, charge transfer between the terraces and the row of silicon dangling bonds at the step edges leads to a charge-ordered state within the row of dangling bonds with ×3 periodicity. Interactions between the dangling bonds lead to their ordering into a fully two-dimensional (2D) array with centered registry between adjacent steps. We show that as the temperature is raised, soliton defects are created within each step edge. The concentration of solitons rises with increasing temperature and eventually destroys the 2D order by decoupling the step edges, reducing the effective dimensionality of the system to 1D. This crossover from higher to lower dimensionality is unexpected and, indeed, opposite to the behavior in other systems. © 2020 American Physical Society.
    view abstract10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.016102
  • Tracking the ultrafast nonequilibrium energy flow between electronic and lattice degrees of freedom in crystalline nickel
    Maldonado, P. and Chase, T. and Reid, A.H. and Shen, X. and Li, R.K. and Carva, K. and Payer, T. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M. and Sokolowski-Tinten, K. and Wang, X.J. and Oppeneer, P.M. and Dürr, H.A.
    Physical Review B 101 (2020)
    Femtosecond laser excitation of solid-state systems creates out-of-equilibrium hot electrons that cool down by transferring their energy to other degrees of freedom and ultimately to lattice vibrations of the solid. By combining ab initio calculations with ultrafast diffuse electron scattering, we gain a detailed understanding of the complex nonequilibrium energy transfer between electrons and phonons in laser-excited Ni metal. Our experimental results show that the wave-vector-resolved population dynamics of phonon modes is distinctly different throughout the Brillouin zone and are in remarkable agreement with our theoretical results. We find that zone-boundary phonon modes become occupied first. As soon as the energy in these modes becomes larger than the average electron energy, a backflow of energy from lattice to electronic degrees of freedom occurs. Subsequent excitation of lower-energy phonon modes drives the thermalization of the whole system on the picosecond time scale. We determine the evolving nonequilibrium phonon occupations, which we find to deviate markedly from thermal occupations. © 2020 authors. Published by the American Physical Society. Published by the American Physical Society under the terms of the "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI. Funded by "https://www.kb.se/samverkan-och-utveckling/oppen-Tillgang-och-bibsamkonsortiet/bibsamkonsortiet.html" Bibsam.
    view abstract10.1103/PhysRevB.101.100302
  • Condensation of ground state from a supercooled phase in the Si(111)-(4 × 1) → (8 × 2)-indium atomic wire system
    Hafke, B. and Witte, T. and Janoschka, D. and Dreher, P. and Meyer Zu Heringdorf, F.-J. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M.
    Structural Dynamics 6 (2019)
    Strong optical irradiation of indium atomic wires on a Si(111) surface causes the nonthermal structural transition from the (8 × 2) reconstructed ground state to an excited (4 × 1) state. The immediate recovery of the system to the ground state is hindered by an energy barrier for the collective motion of the indium atoms along the reaction coordinate from the (4 × 1) to the (8 × 2) state. This metastable, supercooled state can only recover through nucleation of the ground state at defects like adsorbates or step edges. Subsequently, a recovery front propagates with constant velocity across the surface and the (8 × 2) ground state is reinstated. In a combined femtosecond electron diffraction and photoelectron emission microscopy study, we determined - based on the step morphology - a velocity of this recovery front of ∼100 m/s. © 2019 Author(s).
    view abstract10.1063/1.5111636
  • Decelerated lattice excitation and absence of bulk phonon modes at surfaces: Ultra-fast electron diffraction from Bi(111) surface upon fs-laser excitation
    Tinnemann, V. and Streubühr, C. and Hafke, B. and Witte, T. and Kalus, A. and Hanisch-Blicharski, A. and Ligges, M. and Zhou, P. and Von Der Linde, D. and Bovensiepen, U. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M.
    Structural Dynamics 6 (2019)
    Ultrafast reflection high-energy electron diffraction is employed to follow the lattice excitation of a Bi(111) surface upon irradiation with a femtosecond laser pulse. The thermal motion of the atoms is analyzed through the Debye-Waller effect. While the Bi bulk is heated on time scales of 2 to 4 ps, we observe that the excitation of vibrational motion of the surface atoms occurs much slower with a time constant of 12 ps. This transient nonequilibrium situation is attributed to the weak coupling between bulk and surface phonon modes which hampers the energy flow between the two subsystems. From the absence of a fast component in the transient diffraction intensity, it is in addition concluded that truncated bulk phonon modes are absent at the surface. © 2019 Author(s).
    view abstract10.1063/1.5128275
  • Diffraction paradox: An unusually broad diffraction background marks high quality graphene
    Chen, S. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M. and Thiel, P.A. and Tringides, M.C.
    Physical Review B 100 (2019)
    The realization of the unusual properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials requires the formation of large domains of single-layer thickness, extending over the mesoscale. It is found that the formation of uniform graphene on SiC, contrary to textbook diffraction, is signaled by a strong bell-shaped component (BSC) around the (00) and G(10) spots (but not around the substrate spots). The BCS is also seen on graphene grown on metals, because a single uniform graphene layer can be also grown with large lateral size. It is only seen by electron diffraction but not with X-ray or He scattering. Although the origin of such an intriguing result is unclear, its presence in the earlier literature (but never mentioned) points to its robustness and significance. A likely mechanism relates to the the spatial confinement of the graphene electrons, within a single layer. This leads to large spread in their wave vector which is transferred by electron-electron interactions to the elastically scattered electrons to generate the BSC. © 2019 American Physical Society.
    view abstract10.1103/PhysRevB.100.155307
  • Pulsed electron gun for electron diffraction at surfaces with femtosecond temporal resolution and high coherence length
    Hafke, B. and Witte, T. and Brand, C. and Duden, T. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M.
    Review of Scientific Instruments 90 (2019)
    We present a newly designed 30 kV pulsed electron gun for ultrafast electron diffraction suited for pump-probe setups driven by femtosecond laser pulses. The electron gun can be operated both in transmission and reflection geometry. A robust design with a back illuminated Au photocathode, extraction fields of 7.5 kV/mm, and a magnetic focus lens ensures reliable daily use. Magnetic deflectors allow for beam alignment and characterization. Focusing of the UV pulse on the photocathode results in a small source size of photoemitted electrons and thus a high transverse coherence length of more than 50 nm in diffraction. A low difference of ΔE = 0.1 eV between the work function of the 10 nm Au photocathode and photon energy of the frequency tripled UV laser pulses results in an instrumental temporal resolution of 330 fs full width at half maximum. This resolution is discussed with respect to the number of electrons per pulse. © 2019 Author(s).
    view abstract10.1063/1.5086124
  • Rapid onset of strain relief by massive generation of misfit dislocations in Bi(111)/Si(001) heteroepitaxy
    Meyer, D. and Jnawali, G. and Hattab, H. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M.
    Applied Physics Letters 114 (2019)
    Strain and its relaxation in lattice mismatched heterostructures are crucial for the functionality of modern electronic devices, which are often challenging to determine experimentally. Here, we demonstrate a technique for measuring the strain state during epitaxial growth of Bi(111) films on Si(001) by using the spot profile analysis low-energy electron diffraction. Exploiting two non-equivalent integer-order diffraction spots originated from two Bi sub-lattices, the lattice parameter of the film is determined with high precision, which allows tracing the strain state as the film grows. The sudden and massive generation of misfit dislocations is found at a critical thickness of 4 nm which is explained through the inhomogeneous strain state of films with a thickness below one quarter of the mean distance of the dislocations. © 2019 Author(s).
    view abstract10.1063/1.5088760
  • Ultrafast electron diffraction from a Bi(111) surface: Impulsive lattice excitation and Debye-Waller analysis at large momentum transfer
    Tinnemann, V. and Streubühr, C. and Hafke, B. and Kalus, A. and Hanisch-Blicharski, A. and Ligges, M. and Zhou, P. and Von Der Linde, D. and Bovensiepen, U. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M.
    Structural Dynamics 6 (2019)
    The lattice response of a Bi(111) surface upon impulsive femtosecond laser excitation is studied with time-resolved reflection high-energy electron diffraction. We employ a Debye-Waller analysis at large momentum transfer of 9.3 Å -1 ≤ Δ k ≤ 21.8 Å -1 in order to study the lattice excitation dynamics of the Bi surface under conditions of weak optical excitation up to 2 mJ/cm 2 incident pump fluence. The observed time constants τ int of decay of diffraction spot intensity depend on the momentum transfer Δk and range from 5 to 12 ps. This large variation of τ int is caused by the nonlinearity of the exponential function in the Debye-Waller factor and has to be taken into account for an intensity drop ΔI > 0.2. An analysis of more than 20 diffraction spots with a large variation in Δk gave a consistent value for the time constant τ T of vibrational excitation of the surface lattice of 12 ± 1 ps independent on the excitation density. We found no evidence for a deviation from an isotropic Debye-Waller effect and conclude that the primary laser excitation leads to thermal lattice excitation, i.e., heating of the Bi surface. © 2019 Author(s).
    view abstract10.1063/1.5093637
  • Lateral heterostructures of hexagonal boron nitride and graphene: BCN alloy formation and microstructuring mechanism
    Petrović, M. and Horn-von Hoegen, M. and Meyer zu Heringdorf, F.-J.
    Applied Surface Science 455 (2018)
    Integration of individual two-dimensional materials into heterostructures is a crucial step which enables development of new and technologically interesting functional systems of reduced dimensionality. Here, well-defined lateral heterostructures of hexagonal boron nitride and graphene are synthesized on Ir(1 1 1) by performing sequential chemical vapor deposition from borazine and ethylene in ultra-high vacuum. Low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) and selected-area electron diffraction (μ-LEED) show that the heterostructures do not consist only of hexagonal boron nitride (an insulator) and graphene (a conductor), but that also a 2D alloy made up of B, C, and N atoms (a semiconductor) is formed. Composition and spatial extension of the alloy can be tuned by controlling the parameters of the synthesis. A new method for in situ fabrication of micro and nanostructures based on decomposition of hexagonal boron nitride is experimentally demonstrated and modeled analytically, which establishes a new route for production of BCN and graphene elements of various shapes. In this way, atomically-thin conducting and semiconducting components can be fabricated, serving as a basis for manufacturing more complex devices. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.
    view abstract10.1016/j.apsusc.2018.06.057
  • Non-equilibrium lattice dynamics of one-dimensional in chains on Si(111) upon ultrafast optical excitation
    Frigge, T. and Hafke, B. and Witte, T. and Krenzer, B. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M.
    Structural Dynamics 5 (2018)
    The photoinduced structural dynamics of the atomic wire system on the Si(111)-In surface has been studied by ultrafast electron diffraction in reflection geometry. Upon intense fs-laser excitation, this system can be driven in around 1 ps from the insulating (8×2) reconstructed low temperature phase to a metastable metallic (4×1) reconstructed high temperature phase. Subsequent to the structural transition, the surface heats up on a 6 times slower timescale as determined from a transient Debye-Waller analysis of the diffraction spots. From a comparison with the structural response of the high temperature (4×1) phase, we conclude that electron-phonon coupling is responsible for the slow energy transfer from the excited electron system to the lattice. The significant difference in timescales is evidence that the photoinduced structural transition is non-thermally driven. © 2018 Author(s).
    view abstract10.1063/1.5016619
  • Optically excited structural transition in atomic wires on surfaces at the quantum limit: A femtosecond ultrafast surface electron diffraction study
    Horn-von Hoegen, M
    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 10673 (2018)
    Ultrafast electron diffraction is employed for study of structural dynamics at surfaces in the time domain. Experiments are performed in a pump probe setup with fs-laser excitation and subsequent probing through diffraction of a fs electron pulse at a temporal resolution of 350 fs. The system of interest is one atomic layer of indium atoms on a Si(111) surface: Through self-assembly In atomic wires and form which exhibits a Peierls-like, insulator to metal phase transition which can be driven non-thermally through a femtosecond-laser pulse. Through the transient intensity of the diffraction spots we observe the lifting of the Peierls transition and melting of a charge density wave in only 700 fs, heating of the surface in 6 ps, and formation of a metastable and supercooled phase which exists for nanoseconds. © 2018 SPIE.
    view abstract10.1117/12.2312239
  • Imaging the Nonlinear Plasmoemission Dynamics of Electrons from Strong Plasmonic Fields
    Podbiel, D. and Kahl, P. and Makris, A. and Frank, B. and Sindermann, S. and Davis, T.J. and Giessen, H. and Horn-von Hoegen, M. and Meyer zu Heringdorf, F.-J.
    Nano Letters 17 (2017)
    We use subcycle time-resolved photoemission microscopy to unambiguously distinguish optically triggered electron emission (photoemission) from effects caused purely by the plasmonic field (termed "plasmoemission"). We find from time-resolved imaging that nonlinear plasmoemission is dominated by the transverse plasmon field component by utilizing a transient standing wave from two counter-propagating plasmon pulses of opposite transverse spin. From plasmonic foci on flat metal surfaces, we observe highly nonlinear plasmoemission up to the fifth power of intensity and quantized energy transfer, which reflects the quantum-mechanical nature of surface plasmons. Our work constitutes the basis for novel plasmonic devices such as nanometer-confined ultrafast electron sources as well as applications in time-resolved electron microscopy. © 2017 American Chemical Society.
    view abstract10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b02235
  • Microanalysis of single-layer hexagonal boron nitride islands on Ir(111)
    Petrović, M. and Hagemann, U. and Horn-von Hoegen, M. and Meyer zu Heringdorf, F.-J.
    Applied Surface Science 420 (2017)
    Large hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) single-layer islands of high crystalline quality were grown on Ir(111) via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and have been studied with low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM). Two types of hBN islands have been observed that structurally differ in their shape and orientation with respect to iridium, where the former greatly depends on the iridium step morphology. Photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) and IV-LEEM spectroscopy revealed that the two island types also exhibit different work functions and bindings to iridium, which provides an explanation for differences in their shape and growth modes. In addition, various temperatures were used for the CVD synthesis of hBN, and it was found that at temperatures higher than ≈950 °C boron atoms, originating either from decomposed borazine molecules or disintegrated hBN islands, can form additional compact reconstructed regions. The presented results are important for advancement in synthesis of high-quality hBN and other boron-based layered materials, and could therefore expedite their technological implementation. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.
    view abstract10.1016/j.apsusc.2017.05.155
  • Nanoscale interfacial heat transport of ultrathin epitaxial hetero films: Few monolayer Pb(111) on Si(111)
    Witte, T. and Frigge, T. and Hafke, B. and Krenzer, B. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M.
    Applied Physics Letters 110 (2017)
    We studied the phononic heat transport from ultrathin epitaxial Pb(111) films across the heterointerface into a Si(111) substrate by means of ultrafast electron diffraction. The thickness of the Pb films was varied from 15 to 4 monolayers. It was found that the thermal boundary conductance σTBC of the heterointerface is independent of the film thickness. We have no evidence for finite size effects: the continuum description of heat transport is still valid, even for the thinnest films of only 4 monolayer thickness. © 2017 Author(s).
    view abstract10.1063/1.4986509
  • Optically excited structural transition in atomic wires on surfaces at the quantum limit
    Frigge, T. and Hafke, B. and Witte, T. and Krenzer, B. and Streubühr, C. and Samad Syed, A. and Mikšić Trontl, V. and Avigo, I. and Zhou, P. and Ligges, M. and Von Der Linde, D. and Bovensiepen, U. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M. and Wippermann, S. and Lücke, A. and Sanna, S. and Gerstmann, U. and Schmidt, W.G.
    Nature 544 (2017)
    Transient control over the atomic potential-energy landscapes of solids could lead to new states of matter and to quantum control of nuclear motion on the timescale of lattice vibrations. Recently developed ultrafast time-resolved diffraction techniques combine ultrafast temporal manipulation with atomic-scale spatial resolution and femtosecond temporal resolution. These advances have enabled investigations of photo-induced structural changes in bulk solids that often occur on timescales as short as a few hundred femtoseconds. In contrast, experiments at surfaces and on single atomic layers such as graphene report timescales of structural changes that are orders of magnitude longer. This raises the question of whether the structural response of low-dimensional materials to femtosecond laser excitation is, in general, limited. Here we show that a photo-induced transition from the low- to high-symmetry state of a charge density wave in atomic indium (In) wires supported by a silicon (Si) surface takes place within 350 femtoseconds. The optical excitation breaks and creates In-In bonds, leading to the non-thermal excitation of soft phonon modes, and drives the structural transition in the limit of critically damped nuclear motion through coupling of these soft phonon modes to a manifold of surface and interface phonons that arise from the symmetry breaking at the silicon surface. This finding demonstrates that carefully tuned electronic excitations can create non-equilibrium potential energy surfaces that drive structural dynamics at interfaces in the quantum limit (that is, in a regime in which the nuclear motion is directed and deterministic). This technique could potentially be used to tune the dynamic response of a solid to optical excitation, and has widespread potential application, for example in ultrafast detectors. © 2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved.
    view abstract10.1038/nature21432
  • A combined STM and SPA-LEED study of the "explosive" nucleation and collective diffusion in Pb/Si(111)
    Hattab, H. and Hupalo, M. and Hershberger, M.T. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M. and Tringides, M.C.
    Surface Science 646 (2016)
    A novel type of very fast nucleation was recently found in Pb/Si(111) with 4- to 7-layer high islands becoming crystalline in an "explosive" way, when the Pb deposited amount in the wetting layer is compressed to θc ~ 1.22 ML, well above the metallic Pb(111) density. This "explosive" nucleation is very different from classical nucleation when island growth is more gradual and islands grow in size by single adatom aggregation [8]. In order to identify the key parameters that control the nucleation we used scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spot profile analysis low energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED). It was found that the number and duration of steps in iterative deposition used to approach θc and the flux rate have dramatic effects on the crystallization process. Larger depositions over shorter times induce greater spatial coverage fluctuations, so local areas can reach the critical coverage θc easier. This can trigger the collective motion of the wetting layer from far away to build the Pb islands "explosively". The SPA-LEED experiments show that even low flux experiments in iterative deposition experiments can trigger transfer of material to the superstable 7-layer islands, as seen from the stronger satellite rings close to the (00) spot. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    view abstract10.1016/j.susc.2015.08.017
  • Dy uniform film morphologies on graphene studied with SPA-LEED and STM
    McDougall, D. and Hattab, H. and Hershberger, M.T. and Hupalo, M. and Horn-von Hoegen, M. and Thiel, P.A. and Tringides, M.C.
    Carbon 108 (2016)
    The use of graphene for microelectronics and spintronic applications requires strategies for metals to wet graphene and to grow layer-by-layer. This is especially important when metals will be used as electrical contacts or as spin filters. Extensive work in the literature so far has shown that this is very challenging, since practically all metals grow 3D, with multi-height islands forming easily. Reasons for the 3D morphology are the much weaker metal carbon bond when compared to the metal cohesive energy and the role of Coulomb repulsion of the poorly screened charges at the metal graphene interface. We employed the complementary techniques of SPA-LEED and STM to study the growth of Dy on graphene. It was found that under kinetic limitations it is possible to fully cover graphene with a bilayer Dy film, by growing well below room temperature in stepwise deposition experiments. The Dy film, however, is amorphous but ways to crystallize it within the 2D morphology are possible, since long range order improves at higher growth temperature. © 2016
    view abstract10.1016/j.carbon.2016.06.083
  • Two-dimensional interaction of spin chains in the Si(553)-Au nanowire system
    Hafke, B. and Frigge, T. and Witte, T. and Krenzer, B. and Aulbach, J. and Schäfer, J. and Claessen, R. and Erwin, S.C. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M.
    Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 94 (2016)
    Adsorption of Au on Si(553) results in the self-assembly of highly ordered step arrays of one-dimensional (1D) Au atomic wires along the step direction. Charge transfer from the terrace to the step edge causes every third Si atom at the step edge to exhibit a partially filled dangling bond hosting a single fully spin-polarized electron which forms in an ordered 1D spin chain along the step. The interstep correlation of this threefold periodicity in neighboring Si step edges and the geometry of the unit cell has been determined by means of high-resolution spot profile analysis low-energy electron diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy, and density functional theory. While the twofold periodicity of the Au wires exhibits a weak interwire interaction, leading to streaks in the diffraction pattern, the correlation of the Si step edge atoms is by far a stronger interaction, resulting in clear spots. The corresponding unit cell spanned by threefold ordered step edge atoms can be described as a centered structure which is magnetically frustrated and may stabilize a (two-dimensional) quantum spin liquid. © 2016 American Physical Society.
    view abstract10.1103/PhysRevB.94.161403
  • Barrier-free subsurface incorporation of 3d metal atoms into Bi(111) films
    Klein, C. and Vollmers, N.J. and Gerstmann, U. and Zahl, P. and Lükermann, D. and Jnawali, G. and Pfnür, H. and Tegenkamp, C. and Sutter, P. and Schmidt, W.G. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M.
    Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 91 (2015)
    By combining scanning tunneling microscopy with density functional theory it is shown that the Bi(111) surface provides a well-defined incorporation site in the first bilayer that traps highly coordinating atoms such as transition metals (TMs) or noble metals. All deposited atoms assume exactly the same specific sevenfold coordinated subsurface interstitial site while the surface topography remains nearly unchanged. Notably, 3d TMs show a barrier-free incorporation. The observed surface modification by barrier-free subsorption helps to suppress aggregation in clusters. It allows a tuning of the electronic properties not only for the pure Bi(111) surface, but may also be observed for topological insulators formed by substrate-stabilized Bi bilayers. © 2015 American Physical Society.
    view abstract10.1103/PhysRevB.91.195441
  • Nanoscale heat transport from Ge hut, dome, and relaxed clusters on Si(001) measured by ultrafast electron diffraction
    Frigge, T. and Hafke, B. and Tinnemann, V. and Krenzer, B. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M.
    Applied Physics Letters 106 (2015)
    The thermal transport properties of crystalline nanostructures on Si were studied by ultra-fast surface sensitive time-resolved electron diffraction. Self-organized growth of epitaxial Ge hut, dome, and relaxed clusters was achieved by in-situ deposition of 8 monolayers of Ge on Si(001) at 550 °C under UHV conditions. The thermal response of the three different cluster types subsequent to impulsive heating by fs laser pulses was determined through the Debye-Waller effect. Time resolved spot profile analysis and life-time mapping was employed to distinguish between the thermal response of the different cluster types. While dome clusters are cooling with a time constant of τ = 150 ps, which agrees well with numerical simulations, the smaller hut clusters with a height of 2.3 nm exhibit a cooling time constant of τ = 50 ps, which is a factor of 1.4 slower than expected. © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.
    view abstract10.1063/1.4907636
  • Nanoscale thermal transport in self-organized epitaxial Ge nanostructures on Si(001)
    Frigge, T. and Hafke, B. and Tinnemann, V. and Witte, T. and Krenzer, B. and Horn-von Hoegen, M.
    Semiconductor Science and Technology 30 (2015)
    The thermal transport properties of self-organized Ge nanostructures on Si were studied by means of ultrafast surface sensitive time-resolved electron diffraction. The thermal boundary resistance was determined from the temperature response of the Ge nanostructures upon impulsive heating by fs-laser pulses. The transient temperature was determined through the Debye-Waller effect. Epitaxial growth of Ge hut and dome clusters was achieved by in-situ deposition of 8 monolayers of Ge on Si(001) at 550 degrees C under ultra-high vacuum conditions. Time-resolved spot profile analysis of different orders of diffraction spots was used to distinguish between the thermal response of hut and dome clusters. Dome clusters of 6 nm height and 50 nm width cool with a time constant of tau = 150 ps which agrees well with numerical simulations calculated in the framework of the diffuse mismatch model. The much smaller hut clusters with a height of 2.3 nm and width of 23 nm exhibit a cooling time of tau = 55 ps, which is a factor of 2 slower than predicted by theory.
    view abstract10.1088/0268-1242/30/10/105027
  • Signatures of plasmoemission in two photon photoemission electron microscopy
    Meyer zu Heringdorf, F.-J. and Kahl, P. and Makris, A. and Sindermann, S. and Podbiel, D. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M.
    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 9361 (2015)
    The imaging of surface plasmon polariton waves in two photon photoemission microscopy has been intensely studied during the past years, with a focus on contrast mechanisms and light-plasmon interaction. The possibility of photoemission from the plasmonic fields alone has so far not been addressed in such experiments. This was justified, since the intensity of the plasmonic fields at the surface was comparatively weak and nonlinear plasmonic effects were not to be expected. Here we discuss the properties of grating couplers for creation of intense and short plasmon polariton pulses for which the emission of electrons purely from the plasmonic field cannot be neglected any more. Two examples for signatures of such nonlinear plasmoemission effects in experimental two photon photoemission microscopy images are discussed. © 2015 SPIE.
    view abstract10.1117/12.2082610
  • Spot profile analysis and lifetime mapping in ultrafast electron diffraction: Lattice excitation of self-organized Ge nanostructures on Si(001)
    Frigge, T. and Hafke, B. and Tinnemann, V. and Witte, T. and Horn-von Hoegen, M.
    Structural Dynamics 2 (2015)
    Ultrafast high energy electron diffraction in reflection geometry is employed to study the structural dynamics of self-organized Germanium hut-, dome-, and relaxed clusters on Si(001) upon femtosecond laser excitation. Utilizing the difference in size and strain state the response of hut- and dome clusters can be distinguished by a transient spot profile analysis. Surface diffraction from {105}-type facets provide exclusive information on hut clusters. A pixel-by-pixel analysis of the dynamics of the entire diffraction pattern gives time constants of 40, 160, and 390 ps, which are assigned to the cooling time constants for hut-, dome-, and relaxed clusters. © 2015 Author(s).
    view abstract10.1063/1.4922023
  • Comparing ultrafast surface and bulk heating using time-resolved electron diffraction
    Streubühr, C. and Kalus, A. and Zhou, P. and Ligges, M. and Hanisch-Blicharski, A. and Kammler, M. and Bovensiepen, U. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M. and Von Der Linde, D.
    Applied Physics Letters 104 (2014)
    From measurements of the transient Debye-Waller effect in Bismuth, we determine the buildup time of the random atomic motion resulting from the electronic relaxation after short pulse laser excitation. The surface sensitive reflection high energy electron diffraction and transmission electron diffraction yield a time constant of about 12 ps and 3 ps, respectively. The different energy transfer rates indicate relatively weak coupling between bulk and surface vibrational modes. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.
    view abstract10.1063/1.4872055
  • Hysteresis proves that the In/Si(111) (8 × 2) to (4 × 1) phase transition is first-order
    Klasing, F. and Frigge, T. and Hafke, B. and Krenzer, B. and Wall, S. and Hanisch-Blicharski, A. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M.
    Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 89 (2014)
    Indium on silicon (111) exhibits a Peierls-like phase transition from a (4×1) reconstructed high-temperature phase to a (8×2) reconstructed ground state. A controversial debate is going on what kind of phase transition it is: first- or second-order. We employed high-resolution low-energy electron diffraction under slow thermal heating and cooling cycles to follow the phase transition. A robust hysteresis of diffraction spot intensities with a width of 8.6 K has been observed, which is independent of the heating and cooling rate. This hysteresis directly proves the existence of an energy barrier at the phase transition temperature and thus the first-order behavior of this phase transition. © 2014 American Physical Society.
    view abstract10.1103/PhysRevB.89.121107
  • In-situ high-resolution low energy electron diffraction study of strain relaxation in heteroepitaxy of Bi(111) on Si(001): Interplay of strain state, misfit dislocation array and lattice parameter
    Hattab, H. and Jnawali, G. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M.
    Thin Solid Films (2014)
    The relief of lattice mismatch-induced strain in Bi(111) on Si(001) heteroepitaxial system was investigated in real time as the Bi film relaxes, by means of high resolution low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). The inherent lattice mismatch of 2.5% at room temperature is accommodated through the formation of an ordered misfit dislocation array confined to the interface. The strain fields of the dislocations cause a periodic height undulation of the surface in the sub-Ångström regime, which is observed through spot splitting in LEED. From a simultaneous measurement of the position of the first-order LEED spots, which corresponds to the lattice parameter of the film, and of the separation of satellite spots, which corresponds to the ordering of the dislocation array, the evolution of the strain state during annealing of a 6 nm Bi film was determined. The strain is solely relaxed by full edge-type dislocations arranged in the ordered array at the interface. From the remaining strain of ε = 0.6% the critical thickness for generation of misfit dislocations under equilibrium conditions can be derived. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    view abstract10.1016/j.tsf.2014.08.013
  • Normal-Incidence Photoemission Electron Microscopy (NI-PEEM) for Imaging Surface Plasmon Polaritons
    Kahl, P. and Wall, S. and Witt, C. and Schneider, C. and Bayer, D. and Fischer, A. and Melchior, P. and Horn-von Hoegen, M. and Aeschlimann, M. and Meyer zu Heringdorf, F.-J.
    Plasmonics 9 (2014)
    We introduce a novel time-resolved photoemission-based near-field illumination method, referred to as femtosecond normal-incidence photoemission microscopy (NI-PEEM). The change from the commonly used grazing-incidence to normal-incidence illumination geometry has a major impact on the achievable contrast and, hence, on the imaging potential of transient local near fields. By imaging surface plasmon polaritons in normal light incidence geometry, the observed fringe spacing directly resembles the wavelength of the plasmon wave. Our novel approach provides a direct descriptive visualization of SPP wave packets propagating across a metal surface. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.
    view abstract10.1007/s11468-014-9756-6
  • Strain state, film and surface morphology of epitaxial topological insulator Bi2Se3 films on Si(111)
    Klein, C. and Vyshnepolsky, M. and Kompch, A. and Klasing, F. and Hanisch-Blicharski, A. and Winterer, M. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M.
    Thin Solid Films 564 (2014)
    Epitaxial Bi2Se3 films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111)-Bi(3×3)R30° at temperatures between 200 and 250 °C. The surface and bulk morphology was characterized by high resolution low energy electron diffraction, X-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy for various film thicknesses between 6 and 90 nm. The films are atomically smooth without small angle mosaics or small angle rotational domains. The precise determination of lattice parameter reveals that films grown at higher temperature exhibit a smaller value for the vertical lattice parameter. The presence of random stacking faults in the film is reflected by a parabolic increase of the width of the diffraction peaks in X-ray diffraction. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
    view abstract10.1016/j.tsf.2014.04.024
  • Al-induced faceting of Si(113)
    Klein, C. and Heidmann, I. and Nabbefeld, T. and Speckmann, M. and Schmidt, T. and Meyer zu Heringdorf, F.-J. and Falta, J. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M.
    Surface Science 618 (2013)
    Adsorption of Al on a Si(113) substrate at elevated temperatures causes a faceting transition of the initially flat surface. The (113) surface decomposes into a quasi-periodic sequence of Al terminated (115)- and (112)-facets. The resulting surface morphology is characterized in-situ by reciprocal space maps obtained with in-situ spot profile analyzing low-energy electron diffraction and ex-situ atomic force microscopy. The periodicity length of the faceted surface increases with adsorption temperature from 7 nm at 650 C to 80 nm at 800 C. The stability of the Al terminated Si(112) surface is the driving force for the faceting transition. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
    view abstract10.1016/j.susc.2013.08.007
  • Effect of adsorbed magnetic and non-magnetic atoms on electronic transport through surfaces with strong spin-orbit coupling
    Lükermann, D. and Sologub, S. and Pfnür, H. and Klein, C. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M. and Tegenkamp, C.
    Materialwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik 44 (2013)
    Adsorption-induced reduction of the surface state conductivity in epitaxial Bi(111) films, a prototype system with a large Rashba-induced surface state splitting by adsorbed atoms of Bi, Fe and Co was investigated by macroscopic surface magneto-transport measurements at a temperature of 10 K. A detailed analysis of magneto-transport, DC-transport and Hall data reveals that the scattering efficiencies for Co and Fe are by a factor of two larger than for Bi. While for the latter, charge transfer and change of band filling near the Fermi level is negligible, we found an increase of hole concentration upon Co and Fe adsorption. These atoms act as acceptors and retract roughly 0.5 electrons from the surface per adsorbed atom. Besides the dominant classical magneto-conductance signal the films show signatures of weak anti-localization (WAL) reflecting the strong spin-orbit coupling in Bi(111) surface states. Our measurements show that the control of hybridization is important in order to make use of local spin-moments and to increase the backscattering rate in strongly spin-orbit coupled systems, e. g., topological insulators. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
    view abstract10.1002/mawe.201300114
  • Epitaxial growth of the topological insulator Bi2Se3 on Si(111): Growth mode, lattice parameter, and strain state
    Vyshnepolsky, M. and Klein, C. and Klasing, F. and Hanisch-Blicharski, A. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M.
    Applied Physics Letters 103 (2013)
    Using spot profile analysis low energy electron diffraction, we studied the growth mode and strain state of ultra-thin epitaxial Bi2Se 3(111) films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111). The first layer grows as complete quintuple layer and covers the Si substrate before the next layer nucleates. Its lateral lattice parameter is increased by 1% compared with the value of a- = 4.136 Å for a 6-nm-thick film. With increasing film thickness, a continuous change of the lattice parameter is observed to an asymptotic value, which is explained by a van der Waals-like bonding between the Bi2Se3 film and the Si substrate. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.
    view abstract10.1063/1.4821181
  • Frigge et al. reply to the Comment by H. Shim et al. on “Atomistic Picture of Charge Density Wave Formation at Surfaces”
    Frigge, T. and Wall, S. and Krenzer, B. and Wippermann, S. and Sanna, S. and Klasing, F. and Hanisch-Blicharski, A. and Kammler, M. and Schmidt, W.G. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M.
    Physical Review Letters 111 (2013)
    view abstract10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.149602
  • Mode conversion and long-lived vibrational modes in lead monolayers on silicon (111) after femtosecond laser excitation: A molecular dynamics simulation
    Sakong, S. and Kratzer, P. and Wall, S. and Kalus, A. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M.
    Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 88 (2013)
    The dynamics of vibrations localized in a monolayer of Pb on Si(111) is studied using density functional theory and molecular dynamics methods. Recently, a pump-probe experiment has given direct access to the relaxation dynamics of the vibrational excitations in Pb, revealing two distinct time scales which are separately related to the directions of the Pb vibrational motions. We analyze the experimental findings theoretically using atomistic modeling. After excitation of two-dimensional optical phonons, equilibration between parallel and perpendicular modes is observed before dissipation into the Si substrate. Even after several nanoseconds, equilibration with the substrate is not achieved due to energy trapped in acoustic Pb modes. © 2013 American Physical Society.
    view abstract10.1103/PhysRevB.88.115419
  • To tilt or not to tilt: Correction of the distortion caused by inclined sample surfaces in low-energy electron diffraction
    Sojka, F. and Meissner, M. and Zwick, C. and Forker, R. and Vyshnepolsky, M. and Klein, C. and Horn-von Hoegen, M. and Fritz, T.
    Ultramicroscopy 133 (2013)
    Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) is a widely employed technique for the structural characterization of crystalline surfaces and epitaxial adsorbates. For technical reasons the accessible reciprocal space is limited at a given primary electron energy E. This limitation may be overcome by sweeping E to observe higher diffraction orders decisively enhancing the quantitative examination. Yet, in many cases, such as molecular films with rather large unit cells, the adsorbate reflexes become less pronounced at energies high enough to observe substrate reflexes. One possibility to overcome this problem is an intentional inclination of the sample surface during the measurement at the expense of the quantitative interpretability of then severely distorted diffraction patterns. Here, we introduce a correction method for the axially symmetric distortion in LEED images of tilted samples. We provide experimental confirmation for micro-channel plate LEED and spot-profile analysis LEED instruments using the (7×7) reconstructed surface of a Si(111) single crystal as a reference sample. Finally, we demonstrate that the correction of this distortion considerably improves the quantitative analysis of diffraction patterns of adsorbates since substrate and adsorbate reflexes can be evaluated simultaneously. As an illustrative example we have chosen an epitaxial monolayer of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride on Ag(111) that is known to form a commensurate superstructure. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
    view abstract10.1016/j.ultramic.2013.04.005
  • Ultra-fast electron diffraction at surfaces: From nanoscale heat transport to driven phase transitions
    Hanisch-Blicharski, A. and Janzen, A. and Krenzer, B. and Wall, S. and Klasing, F. and Kalus, A. and Frigge, T. and Kammler, M. and Horn-von Hoegen, M.
    Ultramicroscopy 127 (2013)
    Many fundamental processes of structural changes at surfaces occur on a pico- or femtosecond time scale. In order to study such ultra-fast processes, we have combined modern surface science techniques with fs-laser pulses in a pump-probe scheme. Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) with grazing incident electrons ensures surface sensitivity for the probing electron pulses. Utilizing the Debye-Waller effect, we studied the cooling of vibrational excitations in monolayer adsorbate systems or the nanoscale heat transport from an ultra-thin film through a hetero-interface on the lower ps-time scale. The relaxation dynamics of a driven phase transition far away from thermal equilibrium is demonstrated with the In-induced (8×2) reconstruction on Si(111). This surface exhibits a Peierls-like phase transition at 100. K from a (8×2) ground state to (4×1) excited state. Upon excitation by a fs-laser pulse, this structural phase transition is driven into an excited (4×1) state at a sample temperature of 20. K. Relaxation into the (8×2) ground state occurs after more than 150. ps. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
    view abstract10.1016/j.ultramic.2012.07.017
  • Ultrafast laser-induced melting and ablation studied by time-resolved diffuse X-ray scattering
    Nicoul, M. and Quirin, F. and Lindenberg, A.M. and Barty, A. and Fritz, D.M. and Zhu, D. and Lemke, H. and Chollet, M. and Reis, D.A. and Chen, J. and Ghimire, S. and Trigo, M. and Fuchs, M. and Gaffney, K.J. and Larsson, J. and Becker, T. and Meyer, S. and Payer, T. and Meyer zu Heringdorf, F.-J. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M. and Jerman, M. and Sokolowski-Tinten, K.
    EPJ Web of Conferences 41 (2013)
    Time-resolved diffuse X-ray scattering with 50 fs, 9.5 keV X-ray pulses from the Linear Coherent Light Source was used to study the structural dynamics in materials undergoing rapid melting and ablation after fs laser excitation. © Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2013.
    view abstract10.1051/epjconf/20134104013
  • Ultrafast time resolved reflection high energy electron diffraction with tilted pump pulse fronts
    Zhou, P. and Streubühr, C. and Kalus, A. and Frigge, T. and Wall, S. and Hanisch-Blicharski, A. and Kammler, M. and Ligges, M. and Bovensiepen, U. and Von Der Linde, D. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M.
    EPJ Web of Conferences 41 (2013)
    We present time-resolved RHEED from a laser excited Pb(111) surface using a pulse front tilter for the compensation of the velocity mismatch of electrons and light. The laser pulses with tilted fronts were characterized by a spatially resolving cross correlator. The response of the surface upon excitation was observed to be less than 2 ps. © Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2013.
    view abstract10.1051/epjconf/20134110016
  • Atomistic picture of charge density wave formation at surfaces
    Wall, S. and Krenzer, B. and Wippermann, S. and Sanna, S. and Klasing, F. and Hanisch-Blicharski, A. and Kammler, M. and Schmidt, W.G. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M.
    Physical Review Letters 109 (2012)
    We used ultrafast electron diffraction and density-functional theory calculations to gain insight into the charge density wave (CDW) formation on In/Si(111). Weak excitation by a femtosecond-laser pulse results in the melting of the CDW. The immediate freezing is hindered by a barrier for the motion of atoms during the phase transition: The melted CDW constitutes a long-lived, supercooled phase and is strong evidence for a first-order transition. The freezing into the CDW is triggered by preexisting adsorbates. Starting at these condensation nuclei, the CDW expands one dimensionally on the In/Si(111) surface, with a constant velocity of more than 80m/s. © 2012 American Physical Society.
    view abstract10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.186101
  • Heat transport through interfaces with and without misfit dislocation arrays
    Hanisch-Blicharski, A. and Krenzer, B. and Wall, S. and Kalus, A. and Frigge, T. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M.
    Journal of Materials Research 27 (2012)
    In spite of its large lattice mismatch, Bi grows epitaxially in (111) orientation and almost free of defects on Si substrates. On Si(111), the Bi film is under compressive strain of less than 2% and shows a 6-7 registry to the Si(111)-(7 - 7) substrate. On Si(001), the compressive lattice strain of 2.3% results in the formation of an array of misfit dislocations with a periodicity of 20 nm. We studied the cooling process of ultrathin bismuth films deposited on Si(111) and Si(001) substrates upon excitation with short laser pulses. With ultrafast electron diffraction, we determined the thermal boundary conductance σ K from the exponential decay of the transient film temperature. Within the error bars of 7%, the experimentally determined thermal boundary conductances are the same for both substrates and thus independent of the presence of a periodic array of misfit dislocations and the different substrate orientation. © Materials Research Society 2012.
    view abstract10.1557/jmr.2012.316
  • High-quality epitaxial Bi(111) films on Si(111) by isochronal annealing
    Payer, T. and Klein, C. and Acet, M. and Ney, V. and Kammler, M. and Meyer zu Heringdorf, F.-J. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M.
    Thin Solid Films 520 (2012)
    Bi(111) films grown on Si(111) at room temperature show a significantly higher roughness compared to Bi films grown on Si(100) utilizing a kinetic pathway based on a low-temperature process. Isochronal annealing steps of 3 min duration each with temperatures up to 200 °C cause a relaxation of the Bi films' lattice parameter toward the Bi bulk value and yield an atomically flat Bi surface. Driving force for the relaxation and surface reordering is the magic mismatch of 11 Bi atoms to 13 Si atoms that emerges at annealing temperatures above 150 °C and reduces the remaining strain to less than 0.2%. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
    view abstract10.1016/j.tsf.2012.06.004
  • Interplay of wrinkles, strain, and lattice parameter in graphene on iridium
    Hattab, H. and N'Diaye, A.T. and Wall, D. and Klein, C. and Jnawali, G. and Coraux, J. and Busse, C. and Van Gastel, R. and Poelsema, B. and Michely, T. and Meyer zu Heringdorf, F.-J. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M.
    Nano Letters 12 (2012)
    Following graphene growth by thermal decomposition of ethylene on Ir(111) at high temperatures we analyzed the strain state and the wrinkle formation kinetics as function of temperature. Using the moiré spot separation in a low energy electron diffraction pattern as a magnifying mechanism for the difference in the lattice parameters between Ir and graphene, we achieved an unrivaled relative precision of ±0.1 pm for the graphene lattice parameter. Our data reveals a characteristic hysteresis of the graphene lattice parameter that is explained by the interplay of reversible wrinkle formation and film strain. We show that graphene on Ir(111) always exhibits residual compressive strain at room temperature. Our results provide important guidelines for strategies to avoid wrinkling. © 2011 American Chemical Society.
    view abstract10.1021/nl203530t
  • Manipulation of electronic transport in the Bi(111) surface state
    Jnawali, G. and Klein, C. and Wagner, T. and Hattab, H. and Zahl, P. and Acharya, D.P. and Sutter, P. and Lorke, A. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M.
    Physical Review Letters 108 (2012)
    We demonstrate the controlled manipulation of the 2D-electronic transport in the surface state of Bi(111) through the deposition of small amounts of Bi to generate adatoms and 2D islands as additional scatterers. The corresponding increase in resistance is recorded in situ and in real time. Model calculations based on mean-field nucleation theory reveal a constant scattering efficiency of adatoms and of small 2D Bi islands, independent of their size. This finding is supported by a detailed scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy study at 5 K which shows a highly anisotropic scattering pattern surrounding each surface protrusion. © 2012 American Physical Society.
    view abstract10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.266804
  • Nanoscale heat transport in self-organized Ge clusters on Si(001)
    Frigge, T. and Kalus, A. and Klasing, F. and Kammler, M. and Hanisch-Blicharski, A. and Horn-von Hoegen, M.
    Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings 1456 (2012)
    Ultrafast time resolved transmission electron diffraction (TED) in a reflection geometry was used to study the cooling behavior of self-organized, well defined nanoscale germanium hut and dome clusters on Si(001). The clusters were heated in a pump-probe scheme by fs-laser pulses. The resulting transient temperature rise was then determined from the drop in diffraction intensity caused by the Debye-Waller effect. From a cooling time of τ=177 ps we estimated a strongly reduced heat transfer compared with homogeneous films of equivalent thickness. © 2013 Materials Research Society.
    view abstract10.1557/opl.2013.148
  • Scattering at magnetic and nonmagnetic impurities on surfaces with strong spin-orbit coupling
    Lükermann, D. and Sologub, S. and Pfnür, H. and Klein, C. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M. and Tegenkamp, C.
    Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 86 (2012)
    Adsorption-induced reduction of surface-state conductivity in epitaxial Bi(111) films, a prototype system with large Rashba-induced surface-state splitting, by adsorbed atoms of Bi, Fe, and Co has been investigated by macroscopic surface magnetotransport measurements at a temperature of 10 K. A detailed analysis of magnetotransport, dc transport, and Hall data reveals that the scattering efficiencies for Co and Fe are larger by a factor of 2 than that for Bi. While for the latter charge transfer and change of band filling near the Fermi level are negligible, we find an increase of hole concentration upon Co and Fe adsorption. These atoms act as acceptors and immobilize on average about 0.5 electrons per adsorbed atom. Besides the dominant classical magnetoconductance signal the films show signatures of weak antilocalization, reflecting the strong spin-orbit coupling in Bi(111) surface states. This behavior can be changed to weak localization by the adsorption of high concentrations (0.1 monolayers) of magnetic impurities (Fe,Co), similarly to results found on the topological insulator Bi2Se3. Our results demonstrate that details of chemical bond formation for impurities are crucial for local spin moments and electronic scattering properties. © 2012 American Physical Society.
    view abstract10.1103/PhysRevB.86.195432
  • Transient anisotropy in the electron diffraction of femtosecond laser-excited bismuth
    Zhou, P. and Streubühr, C. and Ligges, M. and Brazda, T. and Payer, T. and Meyer zu Heringdorf, F.-J. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M. and Von Der Linde, D.
    New Journal of Physics 14 (2012)
    Laser excitation of thin bismuth films leads to a reduction in the diffraction intensity, which exhibits a characteristic angular anisotropy. The anisotropy depends on the polarization of the laser pulse and persists for approximately 150 ps. The effect clearly indicates coherent atomic motion in a preferential direction that we tentatively attribute to a transient shear deformation due to the photoelastic stress induced by the laser pulse. © IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.
    view abstract10.1088/1367-2630/14/10/103031
  • Atomically smooth p-doped silicon nanowires catalyzed by aluminum at low temperature
    Moutanabbir, O. and Senz, S. and Scholz, R. and Alexe, M. and Kim, Y. and Pippel, E. and Wang, Y. and Wiethoff, C. and Nabbefeld, T. and Meyer zu Heringdorf, F.-J. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M.
    ACS Nano 5 (2011)
    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are powerful nanotechnological building blocks. To date, a variety of metals have been used to synthesize high-density epitaxial SiNWs through metal-catalyzed vapor phase epitaxy. Understanding the impact of the catalyst on the intrinsic properties of SiNWs is critical for precise manipulation of the emerging SiNW-based devices. Here we demonstrate that SiNWs synthesized at low-temperature by ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition using Al as a catalyst present distinct morphological properties. In particular, these nanowires are atomically smooth in contrast to rough {112}-type sidewalls characteristic of the intensively investigated Au-catalyzed SiNWs. We show that the stabilizing effect of Al plays the key role in the observed nanowire surface morphology. In fact, unlike Au which induces (111) and (113) facets on the nanowire sidewall surface, Al revokes the reconstruction along the [1̄1̄2] direction leading to equivalent adjacent step edges and flat surfaces. Our finding sets the lower limit of the Al surface density on the nanowire sidewalls at ∼2 atom/nm2. Additionally, despite using temperatures of ca. 110-170 K below the eutectic point, we found that the incorporation of Al into the growing nanowires is sufficient to induce an effective p-type doping of SiNWs. These results demonstrate that the catalyst plays a crucial role is shaping the structural and electrical properties of SiNWs. © 2011 American Chemical Society.
    view abstract10.1021/nn1030274
  • Epitaxial Ag wires with a single grain boundary for electromigration
    Sindermann, S. and Witt, C. and Spoddig, D. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M. and Dumpich, G. and Meyer zu Heringdorf, F.-J.
    Review of Scientific Instruments 82 (2011)
    Test structures for electromigration with defined grain boundary configurations can be fabricated using focused ion beam (FIB). We present a novel approach of combining epitaxial growth of Ag islands with FIB milling. Depending on the growth parameters, bi-crystalline Ag islands can be grown on Si(111) surfaces and can be structured into wires by FIB. To avoid doping effects of the used Ga FIB, silicon on insulator (SOI) substrates are used. By cutting through the device layer of the SOI substrate with deep trenches, the Ag wire can be electrically separated from the rest of the substrate. In this way, Ag wires with one isolated grain boundary of arbitrary direction can be assembled. Using scanning electron microscopy we demonstrate the feasibility of our approach. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.
    view abstract10.1063/1.3671802
  • Growth temperature dependent graphene alignment on Ir(111)
    Hattab, H. and N'Diaye, A.T. and Wall, D. and Jnawali, G. and Coraux, J. and Busse, C. and Van Gastel, R. and Poelsema, B. and Michely, T. and Meyer zu Heringdorf, F.-J. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M.
    Applied Physics Letters 98 (2011)
    The morphology of graphene monolayers on Ir(111) prepared by thermal decomposition of ethylene between 1000 and 1530 K was studied with high resolution low energy electron diffraction. In addition to a well-oriented epitaxial phase, randomly oriented domains are observed for growth temperatures between 1255 and 1460 K. For rotational angles of ±3° around 30° these domains lock-in in a 30° oriented epitaxial phase. Below 1200 K the graphene layer exhibits high disorder and structural disintegrity. Above 1500 K the clear moiŕ spots reflect graphene in a single orientation epitaxial incommensurate phase. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.
    view abstract10.1063/1.3548546
  • Lost in reciprocal space? Determination of the scattering condition in spot profile analysis low-energy electron diffraction
    Klein, C. and Nabbefeld, T. and Hattab, H. and Meyer, D. and Jnawali, G. and Kammler, M. and Meyer zu Heringdorf, F.-J. and Golla-Franz, A. and Müller, B.H. and Schmidt, T. and Henzler, M. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M.
    Review of Scientific Instruments 82 (2011)
    The precise knowledge of the diffraction condition, i.e., the angle of incidence and electron energy, is crucial for the study of surface morphology through spot profile analysis low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). We demonstrate four different procedures to determine the diffraction condition: employing the distortion of the LEED pattern under large angles of incidence, the layer-by-layer growth oscillations during homoepitaxial growth, a G(S) analysis of a rough surface, and the intersection of facet rods with 3D Bragg conditions. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.
    view abstract10.1063/1.3554305
  • Nanoscale heat transport through epitaxial ultrathin hetero films: Bi(111)/Si(001) and Bi(111)/Si(111)
    Hanisch-Blicharski, A. and Wall, S. and Kalus, A. and Frigge, T. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M.
    Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings 1404 (2011)
    The cooling process of ultrathin hetero films upon excitation with short laser pulses was studied for epitaxial Bi(111) films on Si(001) and Si(111) substrates by means of the Debye-Waller effect with ultrafast electron diffraction. From the exponential decay of the temperature, a cooling time constant was determined as a function of thickness for both substrates. For Bi/Si(111), a linear dependence between the decay constant and thickness was observed, even for 2.8 run thin films , as predicted from the diffuse mismatch model (DMM) and the acoustic mismatch model (AMM). However, with Bi/Si(001), a significant deviation from this linear dependence was observed for film thicknesses below 5 nm. © 2012 Materials Research Society.
    view abstract10.1557/opl.2012.472
  • Shape, orientation, and crystalline composition of silver islands on Si(111)
    Wall, D. and Tikhonov, S. and Sindermann, S. and Spoddig, D. and Hassel, C. and Horn-von Hoegen, M. and Meyer zu Heringdorf, F.-J.
    IBM Journal of Research and Development 55 (2011)
    Photoemission electron microscopy and spot profile analyzing low-energy electron diffraction have been used to study the temperature-dependent growth of Ag islands on a Si(111) surface. Depending on growth temperature, various island shapes can be formed. At low temperatures, polygonic islands are formed, consisting of both Ag(001) and Ag(111) crystal orientations. At higher temperatures, islands consist mostly of Ag(111) orientation and are predominantly of triangular shape. As the islands grow, it is possible that the crystalline composition of an island changes. We observed that Ag(001)-oriented areas convert into areas of Ag(111) orientation. The rotational orientation of the Ag islands with respect to the substrate is explained by a modified coincidence-site lattice approach. © Copyright 2011 by International Business Machines Corporation.
    view abstract10.1147/JRD.2011.2158761
  • Anisotropy of Ag diffusion on vicinal Si surfaces
    Sindermann, S. and Wall, D. and Roos, K.R. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M. and Meyer zu Heringdorf, F.-J.
    e-Journal of Surface Science and Nanotechnology 8 (2010)
    Photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) is used to study Ag surface diffusion on vicinal Si surfaces. The diffusion field is represented by Iso-Coverage Zones around Ag islands during desorption. By analyzing the shape and radius of the Iso-Coverage Zone we can determine diffusion parameters. For anisotropic diffusion the zone has an elliptical shape and the aspect ratio gives a measure for the anisotropy. Using this technique, we study the degree of anisotropy of Ag diffusion on vicinal Si(001) and Si(111). With increasing miscut angles, starting from Si(001) as well as from Si(111), we find a gradually increasing anisotropy, caused by the higher step density. On higher index surfaces, like Si(119), Si(115) and Si(113), we find isotropic diffusion for surfaces with comparable dimer and (double) step structure as on Si(001)-4°, where diffusion is strongly anisotropic. © 2010 The Surface Science Society of Japan.
    view abstract10.1380/ejssnt.2010.372
  • Coherent acoustic and optical phonons in laser-excited solids studied by ultrafast time-resolved X-ray diffraction
    Shymanovich, U. and Nicoul, M. and Lu, W. and Tarasevitch, A. and Kammler, M. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M. and Von Der Linde, D. and Sokolowski-Tinten, K.
    AIP Conference Proceedings 1278 (2010)
    We apply ultrafast time-resolved X-ray diffraction to directly study coherent acoustic and optical phonons in laser-excited materials. In Au the ps acoustic response has been investigated with the particular goal to clarify the interplay of electronic and thermal pressure contributions. In Bi the extreme softening of the coherently excited A1g optical phonon presents strong indication that upon intense laser-excitation the Peierls-transition which determines the equilibrium structure of Bi can be reversed. In FeRh we studied the lattice response after a fast laser-induced anti-ferromagnetic to ferromagnetic phase transition. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.
    view abstract10.1063/1.3507146
  • Imaging diffusion fields on a surface with multiple reconstructions: Ag/Si(111)
    Wall, D. and Lohmar, I. and Roos, K.R. and Krug, J. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M. and Meyer zu Heringdorf, F.-J.
    New Journal of Physics 12 (2010)
    Photoemission electron microscopy is used for studying the thermal decay of Ag islands grown epitaxially on a Si(111) surface. During the decay, the islands feed adatoms to the surrounding surface. The adatoms diffuse and eventually desorb, resulting in a radial coverage gradient that induces the formation of two concentric reconstructed zones, namely (√3 × √3)-R30 o and (3 × 1), around each island. We have developed a diffusion model to describe this multizone formation and demonstrate how diffusion constants can be determined for different reconstructed phases in a simple experiment. © IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.
    view abstract10.1088/1367-2630/12/10/103019
  • Silver induced faceting of Si(112)
    Nabbefeld, T. and Wiethoff, C. and Meyer zu Heringdorf, F.-J. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M.
    Applied Physics Letters 97 (2010)
    Si nanowires grown in ultrahigh vacuum by metal-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid epitaxy are known to exhibit sidewalls with {112}-type orientation. For some metals the sidewalls show pronounced faceting. Ag induced faceting on Si(112) surfaces was studied in situ by spot-profile-analyzing low energy electron diffraction and ex situ atomic force microscopy. The (112) surface decomposes into (115)- and (111)- (√3×√3) -facets, both of which are Ag terminated. The width of the facets is kinetically limited and varies between 6 nm at T<550 °C and 30 nm at T=690 °C. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.
    view abstract10.1063/1.3464555
  • Two-dimensional electron transport and scattering in Bi(111) surface states
    Jnawali, G. and Wagner, Th. and Hattab, H. and Möller, R. and Lorke, A. and Horn-Von Hoegen, M.
    e-Journal of Surface Science and Nanotechnology 8 (2010)
    The Bi(111) surface exhibits a pronounced surface state which acts as dominant transport channel for electric current. We performed in situ four-point probe resistance measurements for thin Bi(111) films on Si(001) to study electron scattering effects in this two-dimensional (2D) electron gas. The surface morphology was manipulated by additional deposition of Bi at 80 K. A linear increase of surface resistance was measured at extremely low coverage of less than 1 % of a bilayer (BL) and the slope gradually decreases with coverage up to about 0.5 BL. This behavior was qualitatively explained applying a simple picture of electron scattering at adatoms or small islands during the early stages of growth in Bi(111) homoepitaxy. Beyond 0.5 BL resistance changes periodically showing an antiphase correlation with roughness-induced LEED (00)-spot intensity oscillations, indicating the scattering of electrons at island edges. © 2010 The Surface Science Society of Japan.
    view abstract10.1380/ejssnt.2010.27
  • epitaxial growth

  • graphene

  • low energy electron diffraction

  • nanostructures

  • photoemission electron microscopy

  • self assembly

  • semiconductors

  • surfaces

  • surfactant mediated epitaxy

  • ultrafast electron diffraction

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