Ghiba, I.-D. and Neff, P. and Madeo, A. and Münch, I.

**MATHEMATICS AND MECHANICS OF SOLIDS****Volume:** 22 **Pages:** 1221-1266**DOI: **10.1177/1081286515625535**Published: ** 2017

Abstract

In this paper we venture a new look at the linear isotropic indeterminate couple-stress model in the general framework of second-gradient elasticity and we propose a new alternative formulation which obeys Cauchy-Boltzmann's axiom of the symmetry of the force-stress tensor. For this model we prove the existence of solutions for the equilibrium problem. Relations with other gradient elastic theories and the possibility of switching from a fourth-order (gradient elastic) problem to a second-order micromorphic model are also discussed with the view of obtaining symmetric force-stress tensors. It is shown that the indeterminate couple-stress model can be written entirely with symmetric force-stress and symmetric couple-stress. The difference of the alternative models rests in specifying traction boundary conditions of either rotational type or strain type. If rotational-type boundary conditions are used in the integration by parts, the classical anti-symmetric nonlocal force-stress tensor formulation is obtained. Otherwise, the difference in both formulations is only a divergence-free second-order stress field such that the field equations are the same, but the traction boundary conditions are different. For these results we employ an integrability condition, connecting the infinitesimal continuum rotation and the infinitesimal continuum strain. Moreover, we provide the orthogonal boundary conditions for both models. © SAGE Publications.